Impressionism – Monet and Renoir, La Grenouillére (The Frog Pond), 1869


Claude Monet, Bain à la Grenouillère, 1869
Claude Monet, Bain à la Grenouillère, 1869

In the summer of 1869 Monet was living in conditions of extreme hardship with his family at Saint-Michel, a hamlet near Bougival, west of Paris. The two works he had submitted to the Paris Salon that year (The Magpie and  Fishing Boats at Sea) had been rejected, and he was keen to paint a ‘tableau’ (living picture) to submit to the Salon in 1870 that might find fresh mass appeal.

Renoir, also desperately poor at the time,  was staying in the vicinity with his parents, and he and Monet painted together at La Grenouillére (The Frog Pond) a popular meeting place on the Seine river near Bougival, which was easily accessible by train. Here people met to swim, dance and drink.

The restaurant at La Grenouillére, which was located on a barge, was a fashionable place for the emerging middle class to enjoy the new pleasures of suburban Paris.  The small island next to the restaurant, with a weeping willow at its centre, was known as Pot de fluers (flowerpot) or ‘the camembert‘.  Accessible by gang planks,  people would meet and talk before progressing to the bar of La Grenouillére.

The name La Grenouillére was based on its double meaning.  It’s not only the French term for frog pond, but it was also used colloquially to describe women who were, as Renoir’s son in his memoir of his father put it, “not exactly prostitutes, but a class of unattached young women, characteristic of the Parisian scene [at the time], changing lovers easily, satisfying any whim, going nonchalantly from a  mansion on the Champs-Elyseés to a garret in the Batignolles“.

He continued, “Among that group Renoir got a great many of his volunteer models. According to him, the grenouilles, or ‘frogs’ were often ‘very good sorts’. Because the French people love a medley of classes, actresses, society women and respectable middle-class also patronised the… restaurant”.

August Renoir, La Grenouillère, 1869
August Renoir, La Grenouillère, 1869

Both Monet and Renoir were living a ‘hand to mouth existence’.  Monet would literally paint until he ran out of colour, then take up sketching in preparation for the next time he could pull together a few francs from his friends in order to continue.  Renoir was being supported by his family. Thankfully the owner of La Grenouillére, Monsieur Fournaise, accepted some of their paintings in exchange for food.

They painted scenes of boats and swimmers and of couples strolling along the water’s edge or crossing the gangplanks. Painting many views of the same scene quickly, they captured the changes in light and atmosphere as the day progressed. In their surviving works from that summer, it is clear that they usually painted alongside each other.

In experimenting with techniques for painting outdoors, they developed a method for capturing the play of light on water. They painted rapidly with short, comma like brushstrokes, and they juxtaposed sharply contrasting, unmixed colours which brought a shimmering life to water. It enabled them to portray the transitory effects of light and atmosphere – goals they had been pursuing for years. Both came to value the sketchy, unfinished quality of the work.

Renoir’s paintings

Details from Renoir’s paintings

Renoir painted huddles of people on the camembert, experimenting with little patches or taches (French for ‘spots’) which were indistinct wiggling strokes which he applied by putting one mark next to another, creating subtle colour variations. He also dashed off bright white impasto (thick paint straight out of the tube) across the water, suggesting reflections of bright light and the movement of the water created by the bathers and the boats.

Monet’s Paintings

(It’s considered that the lost painting of La Grenouillére,  photographed above, was his ‘tableau’ which he submitted to the Salon in 1870, but was rejected.)

Details from Monet’s paintings

Monet was also experimenting with new ways of reflecting water – using huge broad strokes of brown, white and blue. His preference for treating forms in bold masses, juxtaposing patches of colour and suppressing unnecessary detail echoed Japanese Ukiyo-e woodcuts. (It appears that he began collecting Japanese woodblock prints as early as 1864–65 and owned volumes of work by Hokusai.)

Monet may have incorporated the innovations into his paintings the most boldly, but it is not possible to say who was the key initiator of the changes they made to their painting styles. However, the discoveries Claude Monet and  Pierre-Auguste Renior made that summer from painting together and sharing ideas, and the techniques they developed, clearly influenced the evolving Impressionist style.

 Photos of La Grenouillére

(See more information about Monet’s painting techniques and his use of complementary colours in the free trial section of my e-course.)

(Also,  you’ll find detailed information about 19th Century Painting Inventions and how they influenced  the painting style of Monet, and other Impressionists,  in the full e-course.)

This blog is just a short excerpt from my art history e-course, Introduction to Modern European Art,  which is designed for adult learners and students of art history. 

This interactive program covers the period from Romanticism  through to Abstract Art, with sections on the Bauhaus and School of Paris,  key Paris exhibitions, favourite and less well known artists and their work, and information about colour theory and key art terms. Lots of interesting stories, videos and opportunities to undertake exercises throughout the program.

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The Art of the Victorian Goldfields (excerpt)

This blog is a short version on A period in focus – The Art of the Victorian Gold Rush, please head to the website to enjoy the full story.

William Strutt, On Route to the Diggings, 1852

The importance of sketches, paintings and prints as a record of everyday life on the goldfields can’t be understated, particularly as the use of photography was still in its infancy in the 1850s[i].  These images provide a lively and honest view of this period, and equally importantly, demonstrate how life in Australia changed irrevocably as a result of the gold rushes.


The impacts of the goldrushes on our fledgling colony, the country our indigenous people had lived in for many tens of thousands of years, have been far greater than we might at first realise.

Edwin Stocqueler, Gold diggings, Ararat, c.1855

These included:

  • Increase in migration, with a tripling of the population
  • Significant increase to wealth of the colony
  • The period known as “Marvellous Melbourne[ii]
  • Major changes to architecture and lifestyles
  • Support for the development of the arts, and a greater market for the sale of art, particularly watercolours and prints (such as lithographs and etchings)
  • An increase in exports
  • Increase in the breath of skills in colony
  • Boost to local business – from produce through to manufactured goods
  • Strengthening of regional centres
  • Increase in the development of public institutions
  • Improvements in transport and communication – the railway, Cobb & Co coaches, and the telegraph
  • Introduction of Collective bargaining – Eureka stockade
  • Source of the term “Diggers”
  • Introduction of the notion of mateship
  • Growth of a multicultural more egalitarian society
  • Introduction of the eight hour day
  • Opportunity for a more prosperous life for ex-convicts
  • Denudation and destruction of land
  • Changing the way in which indigenous Australians lived
  • Introduction of new species of animals and plants, including rabbits and blackberries
  • Devastation of rivers and waterways
  • Racism and the White Australia Policy

Gold was first discovered at Mount Alexander (between Bendigo and Ballarat) about the same time that Victoria was established as an independent colony in 1851.

Over the next few decades, hundreds of thousands of people poured into Victoria, including a number of professional artists who were drawn, like so many others, by the lure of gold.

John Skinner Prout, Night Scene at the Diggings, c 1852

These artists included Eugène von Guérard, William Strutt, Nicholas Chevalier, S.T. Gill, George Rowe and Edwin Stocqueler.

They joined local artists who at this time were painting in a Colonial style in what was still very early days in the establishment of an arts culture.

To provide some context, in England artists such as John Constable[iii] and J.M.W. Turner[iv] were prominent until about 1850, when new movements such as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (1848), the Anglo-Japanese style (c. 1850) and the Aesthetic Movement (c. 1850) were becoming popular. By the 1880s the Arts and Crafts Movement was becoming a trend across Britain and then internationally.

In France, Realism[v], which portrayed subjects of every day (particularly rural) life, by artists such as Camille Corot[vi], Gustave Courbet[vii] and Jean François Millet[viii], was a key artistic style from the early 1840s until about the 1870s. By the late 1860s artists such as Claude Monet were painting in an Impressionistic[ix] style.

In comparison, with the exception of those produced by a handful of artists, many of the sketches, painting and prints produced during the Victorian gold rush period in Australia appear almost naïve. Nonetheless, they are mostly truthful portrayals of what the artists were seeing, which adds greatly to their historic value.

The gold rushes contributed to the wealth of the colony and influx of professional artists and teachers, and with that the growth of professional art bodies, school and galleries.

By the 1880s the Australian artistic voice had begun to be heard, with significant improvements in the quality of art being produced. And with an increasingly middle class population, the desire to purchase artwork as a mark of success led to a more sustainable market for paintings, particularly landscapes and portraits. Prints, such as lithographs, which could be produced much more cheaply, increased in popularity.

Art and Artists on the goldfields of Victoria


Edward Roper, Christmas in the Colonies, A Christmas dinner at the Diggings

The style of art during the key decades of the gold rush period is known as Colonial[x] art and the subjects that were most popular were landscapes, seascapes, portraits (which drew valuable commissions) and views of townships and homesteads.

In particular, it was a period when the everyday life of those involved in the goldrush was portrayed. Little was idealised in the ‘romantic’ style of European art, except when painted by overseas artists such as Chevalier and von Guérard, who had studied in this style.​

These and other professional artists who attracted by the goldrushes were bringing with them their own values about art and art styles, as well as training in technique, composition, and colour, and this added to the development of art in Australia.

Not surprisingly, the professionalism of art in Victoria increased markedly between the 1850s and 1880s. This came about largely as a result of a push by artists who were strongly motivated both make a name for themselves, but also to establish a strong arts culture.  The increasing wealth in the colony, and a growing middle class, provided opportunities for an arts culture to flourish.   Most importantly, money was spent on public bodies which enabled this to occur.​

George Rowe, View of the City of Melbourne, 1858

Melbourne University was established in 1853, and began to admit women in 1880 (except in study of Medicine), the first town hall building was completed in 1854, the Public Library, now known as the State Library of Victoria, opened in Melbourne in 1859, and the National Gallery of Victoria opened in the 1860s, with the Government granting it the princely sum of £2000 to purchase art work.

This led to the establishment of the National Gallery School, private schools and galleries and budding art societies. (However, the trustees of public bodies were conservative men whose idea of high art was classical and academic painting and sculpture from England and Europe, making it more difficult for a younger generation of artists to develop a unique style more suited to country with a very different history and way of viewing the world.)

By the 1880s, artists such as McCubbin, Streeton, Roberts, Boyd, Sutherland and many others were becoming interested in representing an Australian impression of our landscapes, borrowing in part from French Impressionism. By the 1880s there was also a greater market for oil painters.

Paintings and Prints of the Goldfields

In reviewing the art of the goldfields, it’s clear to see that the value of much of the work lies in its recording of the miners at work, together with those in support industries. Some activities recorded faithfully, others with a touch of humour.

Many people in the camps wanted mementos or pictures to send home to family and friends or simply to collect for themselves. They were interested in easily transportable works on paper – watercolours, lithographs and etchings.

Other key subjects were larger scale works of camps, with families, shops, entertainment, hunting and animals.

William Bentley, Mt Alexander Gold Diggings, 1853

Paintings also record key activities that took place which shaped Victoria at the time, such as; massive immigration; the development of regional centres; improvements in transport and communication; the railway; Cobb & Co coaches; the telegraph; Eureka stockade; the building of Marvellous Melbourne; the impact on Aboriginals; racism toward the Chinese; denudation and destruction of land and the introduction of new species of flora and fauna.

A number of publications included prints from the goldfields, including the Illustrated Australian Magazine,  Illustrated Melbourne News, Illustrated Melbourne Post and the Picturesqure Altas of Australia (see above) which was produced in the 1880s. 


Artists from this period include:  Elizabeth Shepherd, Elizabeth Parsons, Tommy McRae, Samuel Thomas Gill, David Tulloch, George Lacy, George French Angas, Charles Doudiet, Edwin Stocqueler, George Rowe, William Strutt, Nicholas Chevalier,  Eugene von Guérard, Thomas Balcombe, Arthur Esam, Cyrus Mason, Edward Roper, Emil Todt, Ernest Decimus Stocks, George Browning, Henry John Douglas Scott, Henry Winkles, Horace Burkitt, J Anderson, J B Henderson, John Godfrey, Thomas Wright, Walter Mason, Walter Withers, William Taylor Smith Tibbits, John Skinner Prout, George Baxter, Julian Ashton, O R Campbell, R S Anderson, Samuel Calvert, T G Moyle, Thomas Wright, Henry Gritten

Numerous artists painted at the goldfields with varying degrees of proficiency. Unfortunately, I can only find two women professional artists, Elizabeth Parsons and Elizabeth Shepherd Woodmansey, who have extant paintings from this time. No doubt there were other professional and amateur women artists who painted related scenes, although during this period it would have been difficult for women to be supported as an artist, travel to the goldfields for the purpose of painting, and to receive acknowledgement and payment for their work.

Elizabeth Shepherd, Simmons Reef, Mount Blakwood, 57 Miles from Melbourne, Victoria, 1858

Elizabeth Shepherd

It appears that Elizabeth Shepherd may have lived on the goldfields as the owner of a shop, as the name ‘E Shepherd’ is prominently signed above the shop in her painting. Little is known about her except that according to the National Library she came to Victoria in September 1855 and lived there until February 1884. A similar version of this painting is signed by Elizabeth Woodmansey and dated 1882 – presumably her married name. (It’s possible that she married a John Woodmansey and travelled to the UK after his death in 1884.)

  1. Elizabeth Parsons, Chinaman’s Hut. Daylesford. c 1880
  2. Elizabeth Parsons, Upper Macedon
  3. Elizabeth Parsons, At Berwick, 1882

Elizabeth Parsons

Elizabeth Parsons (1831–1897) painter and printmaker,arrived in Melbourne from England in 1870 and she quickly established a name for herself – teaching art students from her home. Her landscape paintings were also represented in several major Melbourne and international exhibitions.

One of the first professional women artists to work in Victoria, she exhibited with Heidelberg School artists Tom Roberts, Frederick McCubbin, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder. 

Parsons was the first and only woman to be elected to the prestigious Victorian Academy of Art council, a position she held for two years. She was also the only woman artist amongst those whose works were selected for inclusion in the Art Union of Victoria’s 1880 illustrated publication of Henry Kendall’s poem, Orara.[xi]

Tommy McRae

  1. Tommy McRae, Scenes from Aboriginal Life, Aboriginal dancers and animals, including emus and lizards, taking part in a ceremony
  2. Tommy McRae, Aboriginal man chasing Chinese man and Aboriginal men fighting

There was also at least one indigenous artist depicting the impact of the life on the goldfields – Tommy McCrae.

Tommy McRae (c.1835–1901), was the most prolific nineteenth-century Aboriginal artist from south-eastern Australia, who produced several books of drawings, and boosted his income from the sale of his artworks. His Aboriginal names have been recorded as Yackaduna or Warra-euea, and he was probably from the Kwatkwat people, whose country stretched south of the Murray River near the junction of the Goulburn River in Victoria[xii].

His books mostly recorded traditional Aboriginal life, such as ceremonies and scenes of hunting and fishing. He also produced a number of sketches which included squatters and Chinese. 

Samuel Thomas Gill

The artist who was probably the most prolific on the goldfields was S T Gill, producing numerous watercolours. On his headstone he is referred to as The artist of the Goldfields.

Samuel Thomas (S. T.) Gill (1818 – 1880) arrived in South Australia, from England, at the age of 21. He arrived with his parents and siblings on the Caroline in 1839, and almost immediately began his career as a watercolourist, illustrator and printmaker.

According to art historian Sasha Grishin, Gill may have learnt art from his father who was an amateur poet and artist, as well as from drawing masters within his family and at Dr Seabrook’s Academy, which he attended as a boarder. He also apparently received training in lithography and engraving in London.

Grishin writes that Gill may have worked as a carver and gilder in Plymouth and subsequently studied with artists in London, where it appears he worked as a draughtsman and watercolourist for Hubard Profile Gallery.[xiii]

Grishin observes that Gill’s early drawings are characterised by three features – a love of social caricature, precise attention to detail and a preoccupation with commenting on death and the struggle between virtues and vices.[xiv]

The first two of these features are particularly obvious in Gill’s recording of life on the Victorian goldfields. It appears he first arrived at the Mount Alexander in early 1852, and by August that year he published a set of 24 lithographs in Sketches of the Victoria Diggings and Diggers As They Are[xv], and these were supplemented by a second set of lithographs only two months later. These small lithographic prints received a warm review in the Argus.

What stands out particularly about S. T. Gill’s work is the way in which he sought to humanise and convey the drama of the goldfields, while at the same time accurately recording details, for example, the layout of the landscape, the clothing, tools and equipment of the diggers, the names of tents, and the dates of his drawings. At same time, while he might often describe positive aspects of a digger’s life, he also showed the converse.

Because of this his work can be considered to be a fairly accurate recording of what he saw and the changes to the landscape over such a short period of time. Aside from a short period in New South Wales, Gill spent most of the rest of his life in Victoria, where he died in 1880.

David Tulloch

S.T. Gill was not the first printmaker on the Victorian goldfields. In 1851 illustrator and engraver David Tulloch was commissioned to make sketches of the diggers and the diggings. These illustrations appeared in Thomas Ham’s Illustrated Australian Magazine, first published in July 1850. By January 1852 Tulloch had finished five sketches, which Ham published as Ham’s Five Views of the Goldfields of Mount Alexander and Ballarat in the Colony of Victoria, Drawn on the Spot by D. Tulloch. These are among the earliest known views of the Victorian diggings.

Little is known about his background, other than that he arrived from Scotland in 1849. In 1852 he set up his own business and went into partnership with a map engraver, James Davie Brown, in 1853. Their work, including several maps and specimens of commercial engraving, won awards at the 1854 Melbourne Exhibition at the Victorian Industrial Exhibition.

In 1889 Herbert Woodhouse, of the Victorian Lithographic Artists and Engravers Club, called Tulloch “an excellent engraver on steel and copperplate of both artistic and mechanical subjects, besides being a good draftsman”.[xvi]

  1. David Tulloch, Great Meeting of Gold diggers Dec 15th 1851
  2. David Tulloch, Golden Point, Ballarat 1851, 1852
  3. David Tulloch, Golden Point, Mt Alexander, 1852
  4. David Tulloch, Mining camp, c 1855-60

The second drawing was made only a few months after gold was first discovered in Victoria, and already you can see felling of trees and large dugouts.

George Lacy

Another artist who has some similarities to S. T. Gill was George Lacy, (c.1817-1878)

but Lacy often made light of the hardships faced by the mining community and this was reinforced by his use of humorous titles, often several lines in length. He was almost exclusively interested in depicting activity scenes and conflict between authority and the underdog[xvii], tending to sketch in backgrounds with broad, sweeping strokes.

Although little is known about his background, Lacy was a painter, illustrator, writer and teacher, who is thought to have had some formal art school training in England. He arrived in Sydney in 1842 on the Wilmot before moving to Victoria around 1855, where it’s believed he sold his paintings at stores at the diggings.

Including his goldrush paintings, he is known to have painted 100 drawings of the early days of Australia’s inland settlement and bushranging activities, particularly those in New South Wales. (He is undoubtedly the artist identified only as ‘G.L. of Wollongong’ who contributed ten works to the second Society for the Promotion of the Fine Arts in Australia exhibition held at Sydney in 1849.[xviii]) All Lacy’s surviving works are in watercolour, wash and ink or, occasionally, pencil. 

Unlike many other artists in the goldfields, Lacy had great interest in painting activities which involved families, adding to our sense of the difficulties they faced.

Lacy produced illustrations for the Illustrated Sydney News, Illustrated Melbourne News, Illustrated Melbourne Post and Sydney Punch in the 1860s, and published his reminiscences in the Albury Southern Courier.

He moved to Bathurst in 1876 where he died of heart disease two years later, aged 60.

George French Angas

In the 1850s’ Lacy contributed to a portfolio of prints, Sketches In Australia: Plates From G. F. Angas – Six Views Of The Gold Field Of Ophir (Published by) Sydney, Woolcott, And Clarke, 1851, and Original Sketches By G. Lacy[xix]. Also included in that publication were works by George French Angas.

George French Angas (1822-1886) was naturalist and painter who studied in England for a time under Waterhouse Hawkins, a natural history artist.

Angas sailed for Australia in 1843 in the Augustus, arriving in Adelaide. He continued to travel within Australia and overseas for several years, producing a number of drawings and watercolours which were reproduced as lithographs in publications such as South Australia IllustratedThe New Zealanders Illustrated, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand, Six Views of the Gold Field of Ophir (Sydney) and Views of the Gold Regions of Australia.

  1. George French Angas, Forest Creek, c1852
  2. George French Angas, Eaglehawk Gully, Bendigo, 1852-3
  3. George French Angas, Goldwashing at Summerhill Creek, 1851

Aside from his paintings of the goldfields, Angas was essentially a naturalist, with interests in ethnology and conchology, although his oeuvre was quite broad.  A gifted draftsman with a concern for detail, he took care to depict native vegetation accurately. In his landscape paintings he applied colour with gently gradated tints, demonstrating a feeling for space.

  1. George French Angas, Australian Native Dwellings
  2. George French Angas, The Aboriginal Inhabitants, and Native Weapons and Implements, 1847

In 1853 Angas was appointed secretary to the Australian Museum in Sydney, a position which he held until 1860. Whilst there he supervised the work of classifying and arranging the first public collection of Australian specimens, especially shells[xx]. He returned to London in 1863, where he died in 1886.

Charles Doudiet

Another artist to arrive at the beginning of the goldrush in Victoria was Charles Doudiet. He came from Canada in 1852, with a sketchbook given to him by his father to record his time in Australia[xxi]. Little is known about any artistic training he may have had.

His “Australian Sketchbook” records the period from February 1853 in Melbourne to September 1855 in Ballarat, two years before he returned to Canada.

  1. Charles Doudiet, Burning of the Eureka hotel, 1854
  2. Charles A Doudiet, Swearing Allegiance to the Southern Cross, Ballarat, 1864, Ballarat Fine Art Gallery
  3. Charles A Doudiet, Eureka Slaughter 3 December 1854
  4. Charles A Doudiet, Gravel Pits Ballarat, 1854

About half of the work in the original sketch book is now in the collection of the Ballarat Fine Art Gallery.  While the watercolours are clearly amateurish, they are important as the record the events at the Eureka Stockade. They include Eureka RiotSwearing Allegiance to the Southern Cross and Eureka Battle (Eureka Slaughter 3 December).

Edwin Stocqueler

Edwin Roper Loftus Stocqueler (1829-95) was born in Bombay and educated in England before travelling to Australia with his mother, Jane. Unforturnately nothing is known about his artistic training, but Stocqueler came to the goldfields with the specific intention of making money from art, rather than digging for gold.

Stocqueler and his mother were on the Bendigo diggings by 1853 and made Sandhurst (now Bendigo) their headquarters, and according to Dr Martha Sear, travelled up and down the Murray River, Goulburn River and Ovens River in a canvas boat.

 “He was interested in natural history and in recording the landscape of those places, and he also recorded his encounters with Aboriginal people”[xxii].

Digging for Gold shows just how quickly the land was decimated around Bendigo at the beginnings of the goldrush. Another interesting aspect to this painting is the large scar tree to the left in the foreground. It shows that part of the bark has been stripped away, possibly to be made into a canoe by local Aboriginals, and this simple inclusion in the painting demonstrates how the goldrush must have impacted local tribes.

In 1857, Stocqueler created a panorama in Bendigo called The Golden Land of the Sunny South. His father had been a narrator for a panorama in London, and Stocqueler thought he could create something similar.

The painting took about four years to complete and was one mile (1.6 kilometres) in length.  It was presented in two parts, each consisting of at least twenty-five paintings. The first half mainly comprised views of Melbourne, Sandhurst, the Bendigo goldfields and the Goulburn River country, while the emphasis in the other half was on north-eastern Victoria, mainly around Beechworth but concluding with several views of Castlemaine[xxiii]. People paid to hear a narrator, accompanied by sound effects, describing the scenes as the paintings on canvas were unfurled from a spindle.

Residents of the newly established town on Bendigo creek flocked to the exhibition, which later travelled to Melbourne, but overall it didn’t attract the audiences he was hoping for.  

Like many of this works, it’s not known if this panorama still exists. Visiting his studio in 1857, a reporter from the Bendigo Advertiser noted some seventy paintings of native birds and animals and referred to other ‘very numerous and interesting sketches and paintings’, and the location these is also not known.

Stocqueler remained in Australia until about 1870. Unfortunately, he died penniless at the age of 65 in London, where he had been reduced to chalking art on the pavement trying to make a living.

George Rowe

George Rowe (1796-1864) painter and lithographer, arrived in Melbourne in 1857 at the age of 60, and although he only stayed for three years, he painted a number of panoramas of the goldfields as well as around Melbourne. As a master lithographer, he had been one of England’s most successful producers of picturesque and topographical views[xxiv].

Like many others he came to Australia in search of gold to rebuild his family’s fortune but was unsuccessful as both a miner and a storekeeper, so returned to his earlier vocation as an artist, and his work proved to be very popular.

His early watercolours of the diggings were generally small in size, for example Australian Settlers’ Tents painted in 1853. He painted an average of two pictures a day, and charged between one and five guineas for each painting[xxv].

  1. George Rowe, Australian Settlers Huts, 1853
  2. George Rowe, Parker and Macord Potato Salesman and General Fruiterers, Bendigo, c 1857

Like the Romantic artists of Europe, such as Henry Fuseli who was painting in the late 1700s, Rowe expressed the romantic concept of the insignificance of humans compared with the majesty of nature. He also demonstrated a strong empathy with Australia’s first people.

In 1857 he exhibited 50 of his watercolour views of Bendigo, Castlemaine and Forest Creek for an Art Union. The Bendigo Advertiser reported with enthusiasm and at length:

In every instance the artist has succeeded admirably in a correct delineation of the scenes he has undertaken… Of all the pictures enumerated, which, with others, are all of well known localities in the Bendigo district, we feel it is impossible to speak in too high terms of praise”.[xxvi]

  1. George Rowe, Aborigines in an Australian Landscape
  2. George Rowe, First Metropolitan Gold Fields Handicap, Ballarat, Victoria, 1861
  3. George Rowe, The End of the Rainbow, 1857, Bendigo Gallery
  4. George Rowe, Melbourne from Observatory Hill, c1858

In 1858 Rowe undertook a sketching tour of the Western District of Victoria (its spectacular mountain scenery also attracted such artists as Eugène von Guérard and Nicholas Chevalier). He was particularly taken by the views from Mount William, the highest peak in the Grampians Ranges. Rowe recorded the visit in his diary, “I sketched the scene and treasured up in my memory the glorious effects which I was privileged to witness, and hope someday to find time to depict them in another fashion[xxvii].

George Rowe, Victorian Race Meeting at Sunbury, 1858

Interestingly, Rowe also painted horse racing scenes, with the first running of the Melbourne Cup being during the goldrush period, in 1861. (By 1880, 100,000 people travelled to Flemington to attend the Cup. As Melbourne’s population was only 290,000 at the time, this attendance was quite phenomenal.)

Whilst on the goldfields Rowe also painted flags used to identify businesses, dwellings and claims wrote writing letters for the many illiterate diggers.

After he returned to England, Rowe exhibited ‘Six watercolour paintings of scenery in Victoria’ in the International Exhibition, London in 1862. Rowe was the only artist to be awarded a medal, which the jurors stated was: “For faithful and beautiful delineation of the country, workings, and other relations of the gold fields[xxviii].

William Strutt

The Victorian goldfields attracted several other professional artists, including William Strutt (1825 – 1915).  Born in Devon, England he had studied in Paris in the atelier (studio) of Michel-Martin Drölling and at the École des Beaux Arts. He also studied artworks at the Louvre in Paris.

It’s clear that Strutt was influenced by the French Academy which considered that large, dramatic canvases of narrative scenes were the highest form of art during the 1700s. A conservative approach to neoclassicism and romanticism were the dominant styles at that time. After seven years in the academic system, Strutt demonstrated his ability to paint large complex compositions of outdoor scenes and of the human figure.[xxix] He was both an excellent draughtsman and illustrator and was perhaps the most highly trained artist in the colony at the time of his arrival in Victoria.

Strutt had decided to emigrate to Australia after suffering from eye problems, which appear to have eased by the time he arrived in Melbourne in 1850, just a year before the goldrush started. He was employed by the Ham brothers and produced engravings for the Illustrated Australian Magazine. He also painted a number of oil portraits of notable Victorians, as well as miniature watercolour portraits of Aborigines, police and bushrangers.

William Strutt, Black Thursday, February 6th, 1861, 1864

Strutt stated that he wanted to create epic pictures for what he saw as an age rich ‘with splendid subjects[xxx]’. His dramatic painting of the bushfire that raged across Victoria on the 6th of February in 1851 is an example of the style of work being painted in France, by such artists as Ernest Meissonier.[xxxi] Not immediately recognisable as a painting of an Australian scene, it nonetheless captures the horror and fright of those fleeing from the fire, amongst the devastation from the 1850 drought.

Strutt visited Ballarat in 1851 and painted a number of depictions of goldfields life, some of which were later printed as lithographs.

William Strutt, Victoria the Golden, c.1851

He wrote:

Here, indeed, was an extraordinary sight. A piece of ground about two or three acres in extent sloping down gently towards a moderate-sized creek was perfectly honeycombed with holes, some just beginning to be dug, but in most of them the diggers were deep down below getting out the auriferous soil, which others were hauling up in buckets to carry in barrows to the cradles, where this washing stuff, as it was called, was most thoroughly washed at the side of the creek by being rocked to and fro in the sieve, [and that] which falls through to be collected from the bottom of the cradle. The creek was lined as thick as it could be packed. Every claim holder had a right to a space in front of the running stream where his cradle stood … The whole field of operations reminded one of a huge ant hill, just disturbed, with the distressed insects hurrying about hither and thither to set things in order once more”[xxxii].

With his academic training, it is not surprising that attempted to persuade the government leaders of his day to take some interest in historical record. For example, he made several studies of the Burke and Wills Exploring Expedition in 1860-6, including their preparations at Royal Park, Melbourne, and at its first camp at Essendon[xxxiii]. He then collected first-hand accounts from the rescue party and from King, the expedition’s sole survivor, upon their return.

The portraits, detailed studies and annotations that Strutt executed on the scene provided material for his works in oil, watercolour and engraving over the next five decades following his return to England in 1862.

Strutt had been a founder of the short-lived Victoria Fine Arts Society in 1853 and together with Eugene von Guerard, Ludwig Becker, Nicholas Chevalier and James Smith, it was revived, renamed as the Victorian Society of Fine Arts. They held several ‘conversaziones’ and an exhibition in December 1857 before disbanding it once again for lack of support.

In 1862 Strutt returned to England where he was elected a member of the Royal Society of British Artists. Over the next 30 years he regularly exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy.

Nicholas Chevalier

Born in Russia of Swiss descent, Henry Chevalier (1828–1902) had studied architecture, drawing, lithography and watercolour in Europe and England before being sent by his father to the Victorian goldfields in late 1854 to attend to family business.

Nicholas Chavelier, Buffalo Ranges, 1864

He was a highly admired artist, and his oil painting The Buffalo Ranges was the first one purchased for the National Gallery of Victoria after being elected as the best painting by a resident Victorian in an exhibition sponsored by the government in 1865.

In 1863 a Fine Arts Commission had been appointed to begin purchasing works for the future National Gallery of Victoria. They announced that they would devote part of their funds to the purchase of a painting (or paintings) by an artist resident in Australia, provided that it should ‘compare favourably with the works of eminent living artists in Europe[xxxiv]’.

Similar to both Strutt and von Guerard, Chevalier was interested in painting epic paintings in the romantic style, although perhaps his technique was not as strong as these two artists.

Nicholas Chevalier, Memorandum of the Start of the Exploring Expedition, 1860

For example, like Strutt, he also painted the departure of Burke and Will on their expedition. However, note how the size of the horse in the foreground is out of proportion – it appears far too small in comparison to the camels almost directly behind it.

Chevalier was known to be a stimulating personality, particularly interested in cultural activities in Melbourne, and his home was often the centre for artists, writers, musicians and academics[xxxv].

He contributed to the newly-established Melbourne Punch and later the Illustrated Australian News – his wood engraved cartoons became one of the most popular features in Punch. He also introduced chromolithography[xxxvi] to Victoria where it became an important and flourishing art[xxxvii]. (In 1865 he published a portfolio of 12 landscape chromolithograph prints.)

  1. Nicholas Chevalier, Wentworth River Diggings
  2. Nicholas Chevalier, Emigrants Landing at the Queens Wharf, Melbourne
  3. M Chevalier, Grassdale Near Casterton, 1863

Chevalier visited New Zealand in 1865–66, exhibiting in Christchurch and Dunedin. He also exhibited in Melbourne at the Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866–67 and later at the Paris Salon in 1868. He returned to England in 1871, where he exhibited annually at the Royal Academy between 1871 and 1887 and in 1895. Chevalier also was appointed by the Art Gallery of NSW’s trustees to its London Selection Committee in 1874, with responsibility for purchasing watercolours by living British artists. He served in this role for more than 20 years until his resignation in 1897, by which time ill health had forced him to give up painting.

Eugene von Guérard

Like Chevalier’s early works, the landscapes of Eugene von Guérard (1811-1901) are also reminiscent of Europe in style. The colours and foliage, in particular, are not always immediately identifiable as representing the Australian bush.

Eugene von Guérard, Warrenheip Hills near Ballarat, 1854, National Gallery of Victoria

He was born in Vienna and learnt to paint, initially, from his father who painted miniatures. In Rome, von Guérard studied in the tradition of the great seventeenth-century landscape artists such as Salvator Rosa, Claude Lorrain and Nicholas Poussin, and then later at the Dusseldorf Academy of Art in Germany, one of the leading art schools in Europe.

It appears that he may have spent some time in the Californian goldfields in the late 1840s and by 1852 von Guérard had arrived in Australia, almost immediately setting off for the goldfields around Ballarat with a large group of companions. He staked several claims starting at Eureka Hill and Gravel Pit, then moving on to other areas around Ballarat including Warrenheip, Canadian Gully, Little Bendigo and Black Swamp. 

Two entries from his diary read:

“Jan. 18th.

After travelling for a week we have arrived at Ballarat… Ballarat consists of a camp of tents, and some buildings constructed of boards. One building, made of the trunks of trees, constitutes the prison, and is often the temporary abode of bushrangers, and also of diggers who can’t – or won’t – pay their licence.    

Jan. 25th.

Yesterday we went to peg our our claims at Eureka Hill. Our nearest neighbours are Chinamen, Englishmen and Americans. We afterwards went on towards Gravelpit, and repeated our pegging there. Two of our company remained at each claim. Digging was begun in four-hourly shifts, to continue day and night.”[xxxviii]

Von Guérard’s first diary, which he kept between 1852 and 1854, contains sketches of the landscape, activities and people of the goldfield and these detailed sketches provide a sincere record of every day life. Although returned to the goldfields many times, he had no success in his search for gold, and was reduced to selling his pictures by lottery.

  1. Eugene von Guérard, View of Victorian Goldfields
  2. Eugene von Guérard, Stoneleigh, Beaufort near Ararat, Victoria, 1866

However, he became successful in obtaining commissions from wealthy land owners and businessmen, including gaining the patronage of Governor Henry Barkly who commissioned a series of sketches of the Western District of Victoria.

Eugene von Guérard, Ballarat in 1853-54

Travelling through the wild mountainous country of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand, von Guérard made numerous sketches which he painted as grand romantic landscapes.

Together with Strutt, Chevalier and others, he formed the Victorian Society of Fine Arts in 1856 and then in 1870 was active in the formation of the Victorian Academy of Arts. In the same year he was appointed to the first master of painting at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. However, he was criticised for his outmoded techniques as a teacher, which restricted students to copying academic masters in the gallery’s collection. He proved to be a stultifying influence on the school which led to a fair amount of criticism. Von Guérard was also appointed Curator at the National Gallery of Victoria – and he held positions until 1881, when he returned to Europe because of ill health.

The Changing Nature of Art, and the Goldfields, from the 1880s

The formation of the art societies, Victorian Academy of Arts, National Gallery of Victoria and National Gallery School, together with a number of privately run art schools, between 1850 and 1870, all indicate that art had become serious business and part of the cultural pursuits of many Victorians.

This was leading to a new generation of artists, who while they still had a strong focus on landscapes and portraiture, had a more nationalistic approach to their work. For example, these works by Walter Withers, painted in 1893, have quite a different feel to them, and are ones that we more easily identify as being ‘Australian’.

  1. Walter Withers, Fossicking for Gold, 1893
  2. Walter Withers, Panning for Gold, 1893

Withers was part of the Heidleberg School, who from the mid 1880s travelled painting au plein air around Melbourne – along the coast (Mentone, Brighton, Mentone, Beaumaris), at Box Hill, and around Heidelberg (Templestowe, Eaglemont, Charterisville). Their style became known as Australian Impressionism[xxxix].

The Heidelerg School [xl]was not a movement as such but a group of artists and friends, many of whom studied at the National Gallery Art School of Victoria, who painted together. It was the era of Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton, Frederick McCubbin, Emma Minnie Boyd and Jane Sutherland, and a number of other artists, and it is from about this time that paintings become more integrated into our popular art history discourse.

By this time also, photography had begun to overshadow paintings as a record of life on the goldfields.

And although gold continued to be found for some in reasonable quantities decades, it was the end of the heyday of the gold rush period, and by the early 1890s boom had turned to bust, brought on largely by overinvestment in real estate and the collapse on property prices.

You’ll find the full story, with much more information about life on the goldfields, at

Andrea Hope, February 2021



[ii] Read more in the article: Emma Minnie Boyd, Art and Opportunity in Marvellous Melbourne



[v] Andrea Hope,

[vi] Hope

[vii] Hope

[viii] Hope

[ix] Hope

[x] See Australian Art History at

[xi] More than a memory—the art of Elizabeth Parsons | Geelong Gallery

[xii] Carol Cooper, Tommy McCrae, deutscherandhackett,

[xiii] Sasha Grishin, S T Gill and his Audiences, 2015, National Library of Australia, Canberra, p24

[xiv] Grishin, p26.

[xv] Sketches of the Victoria Diggings and Diggers As They Are Published by H.H. Collins & Co.: and Piper Brothers & Co., London 1853

[xvi] Design & Art Australia online

[xvii] Callow, M. W.; McDonald, Patricia R.,George Lacey, Design and Art Australia Online,

[xviii] Callow, M. W.; McDonald, Patricia R.,George Lacey, Design and Art Australia Online,

[xix] Held at the State Library of New South Wales, Adlib Internet Server 5 | Details (

[xx] E. J. R. Morgan, ‘Angas, George French (1822–1886)‘, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, published first in hardcopy 1966

[xxi] Margaret Rich,

[xxii] Dr Martha Sear, curator, National Museum of Australia, Digging For Gold: The artist who tried to make a fortune from his paintings in 1850s Victoria

[xxiii] Frank Cusack and Peter Gill, Edwin Roper Loftus Stocqueler, Design and Art Australia online, 2021

[xxiv] David Thomas, Deutscherandhackett.Com, George Rowe, (1796 – 1864) George Rowe At The Diggings Near Ararat, C.1858, Catalogue notes;

[xxv] George Rowe, letter to the artist’s daughter, August 1853, quoted in Blake 1982, Blake, S., George Rowe, Artist and Lithographer1796-1864, Art Gallery and Museum, Cheltenham, United Kingdom, 1982, cat. 165 (illus.) p. 27

[xxvi] ‘The Bendigo Art Union’, Bendigo Advertiser, 15 May 1857, p. 3

[xxvii] ‘A Leaf from the Diary of an Artist. The Ascent of Mount William’, Age, Melbourne, 23 April 1858, p.4

[xxviii] ’Awards of the Jurors’, Department of the Colony of Victoria, Australia, International Exhibition of 1862, London, cat. 476

[xxix] Matthew Jones, Heroes and villains: Strutt’s Australia, State Library, Victoria

[xxx] Jones ibid

[xxxi] Hope, Ernest Meissonier,

[xxxii] As quoted in Victoria the Golden, Old Treasury Building, Victoria,


[xxxiv] Christopher Allen, From Colonization to Postmodernism, Thames and Hudson, London, 1997, p42

[xxxv] Jean Campbell, Australian Watercolour Painters, 1780-1980, Rigby, Adelaide, 1983, p58

[xxxvi] Chromolithography is a printing process where coloured lithographs are produced by a series of stone or zinc plates, each of which carry different portions of the picture to be printed, and are inked in different colours

[xxxvii] Marjorie J. Tipping, ‘Chevalier, Nicholas (1828–1902)’, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University,, published first in hardcopy 1969

[xxxviii] A pioneer of the fifties: leaves from the journal of an Australian Digger, 18 August 1852-16 March 1854 by Johann Joseph Eugen von Guerard. “”

[xxxix] Hope, Australian Art History,

[xl] Read more at Australian Art History,


Allen, Christopher; From Colonization to Postmodernism, Thames and Hudson, London, 1997

Beechey, Desley; Eureka! Women and Birthing on the Ballarat Goldfields in the 1850s, Thesis, 2003

Blainey, Geoffrey; The Rush That Never Ended. Melbourne University Press, 1963.

Blainey, Geoffrey; Black Kettle and Full Moon, Daily Life in a Vanished Australia, Penguin, Camberwell, 2003

Campbell, Jean; Australian Watercolour Painters 1780-1980, Rigby, Adelaide, 1983

Carboni, Raffaello; The Eureka Stockade, Melbourne, 1855

Clark, Deborah; Art of the Goldfields, from Gold and Civilisation, Art Exhibitions Australia & The National Museum of Australia, 2001.

Davidson, Graeme; The Rise and Fall of Marvellous Melbourne, University Press, Calton, 1978

Garden, Don; Catalyst or Cataclysm? Gold Mining and the Environment, Victorian Historical Journal Vol 72, No 1-2, September 2001.

Gordon, Nick; The making of Victoria: From Sullivan Bay to the Gold Boom, March 20, 2020 (published by Academy Travel)

Grishin, Sasha; S.T. Gill and his audiences, National Library of Australia, 2015

Grishin, Sasha; Australian Art History, Miegunyah Press

Kerr, Joan; The Dictionary of Australian Artists – Painters, Sketchers, Photographers and Engravers to 1870, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1992

Hope, Andrea; Australian Art History,

Horne, Donald; The Story of the Australian People, Reader’s Digest, Sydney 1985

Jones, Matthew; Heroes and villains: Strutt’s Australia, State Library, Victoria

McDonald, John; Art of Australia Vol1: Exploration to Federation, Pan McMillan, Sydney, 2008

The Origins of the Acclimatisation Society of Victoria; practical science in the wake of the gold rush – Introduction and Acclimatisation of plants and animals to meet the material needs of the people, Historical Records of Australian Science, V6, No3, Dec 1986.


Academy Travel;

Hope, Andrea; Australian Art History,

National Museum of Australia;

SBS Gold;

State Library of Victoria; Get started – Gold miners and mining – Research Guides at State Library of Victoria (

State Library of New South Wales;

Victoria Collections;

Visit Victoria


Emma Minnie Boyd, Art and Opportunity in Marvellous Melbourne


The period from the mid to late 1800s was a pivotal time for the development of art in Melbourne, which was then known as Marvellous Melbourne.

Until the ‘crash’ in the 1890s, Melbourne was thriving as a result of the gold rush.  (The population of Victoria at this time was just under one million, with about half that number living in Melbourne.)

The first railways were built in the 1850s and by the 1860s it was possible to travel from Melbourne to Richmond, Brighton, Hawthorn, Bendigo and Ballarat.  As well, the first cable tram was operating along Flinders Street to Richmond by 1885. Within five years, trams were ferrying people between the city and inner suburbs along 65 kilometres of tram tracks[1]. Melbourne had the first telephone exchange in Australia and by 1887 there were approximately 8000 calls a day.

marvell me

With increasing wealth, the city turned its attention to building cultural and educational institutions.

Melbourne University, which was established in 1853,  began to admit women in 1880 (except in study of Medicine)[2].

The Public Library, now known as the State Library of Victoria, opened in Melbourne in 1859,  and the National Gallery of Victoria opened in the 1860s, with the Government granting it the princely sum of £2000 to purchase art work.  It was housed in the McArthur Gallery within the Library from 1875 and was the first gallery purpose built for paintings.  The Gallery was immediately popular with early attendance figures of over 360,000 in its first year[3].


The National Gallery Art School, School of Design, accepted its first students in 1867 and in 1870 it split into two schools which were run as separate institutions.

Melbourne also hosted an International exhibition in 1880-1.

The tradition of modern international exhibitions had commenced in 1851, when London hosted two international exhibitions. This set off a hectic timetable with exhibitions held approximately every two years somewhere around the world until 1893[4].

The Great International Exhibition of 1880-1 was held at the Royal Exhibition Building in the Carlton Gardens. The exhibition included everything from works of art, furniture and accessories,  and textiles to raw and manufactured products, agriculture and horticulture[5].

melb ex

Private galleries and studios also began to appear. In upper Collins Street, from the GPO to Spring Street, there were art dealers, a framing store and Isaac Whitehead’s Gallery.

Fletchers art gallery collins st melbourne

In 1885, Johnstone O’Shannessy opened his luxuriously furnished photographic salon in Collins Street and in 1888 the purpose-built artists’ studio complex, Grosvenor Chambers, which was the first in Australia, opened near the corner of Spring Street.

One-third of all the members of the Victorian Artists’ Society had their studios in this section of Collins Street. Tom Roberts created the most elaborate studio in the aesthetic style, drawing on Asian influences and decor and light wicker work[6].

Victorian Artists Society
The Victorian Artists Society


The Victorian Academy of Art  (VAA) which was established in 1870, offered schools for the study of fine arts and hosted annual exhibitions. It amalgamated with the Australian Artists Association (est. 1886) to form the Victorian Artists’ Society (VAS) in 1888.


As a result, more opportunities to study art became available, and there was an increasing interest in plein air painting, which contributed to Australia’s developing sense of nationalism. The ‘Heidleberg’ and other artists had greater opportunities to exhibit their work publicly, and wealthy patrons sought to have their portraits painted. Private art teachers travelled to and from Europe and Britain bringing with them new techniques and ideas.

Emma Minnie Boyd

Emma Minnie Boyd  (1858 – 1936) was well placed to emerge as a highly professional and respected artist during this period, even though her achievements, like so many female artists of her time, were not celebrated into the future. Known as Minnie to distinguish her from her mother, also named Emma, she displayed an early talent.

She was a painter in oils and watercolours, a printmaker, sculptor,  children’s book illustrator, ceramics painter and she made numerous sketches. One of her earliest works was an oil painting on a gum leaf (which was popular at that time[7]) Bush Scene, The Walk  Chiltern area of North Eastern Victoria. In the early 1900s she also gave private art lessons.


Artistically, Minnie may have inherited her skills from her great-uncle Thomas a’Beckett who was an accomplished amateur artist, and her father’s cousin Ted a’Beckett, who had trained at the Royal Academy in London and was a professional portrait painter.

Both her mother, Emma, and her grandfather,  Sir William a’Beckett, the first Chief Justice of Victoria, were well known for their appreciation of the arts and they supported Minnie in developing her artistic talents. Emma hoped that ‘Minnie would make her mark [as a painter] in her time’[8].

Equally important was her family’s wealth, which enabled Minnie to train in drawing and painting both in Australia and overseas, and the opportunity to exhibit, without the need to earn a living or focus on finding a husband.  Her grandfather, John Mills, had arrived in Australia as a convict but after he gained his ‘ticket of leave’ he became a successful brewer and property owner – and he left Emma very well off when he died when she was only three. The marriage of Emma to William a’Beckett provided the family with both wealth and status.

Education and Tuition

As a result, Emma was able to support her family’s endeavours and young Minnie was privileged to be able to attend a school for young ladies, where her lessons included drawing.

Although there is a perception that young Australian women had few options for eduction outside the home in the 19th Century, according to  writer Majorie Theobold[9]  there were at least 30 female schools in Victoria – aimed at the middle class and wealthy.

There are reports of Minnie Boyd attending two different schools.  Dr Anne Sanders[10], Curatorial Researcher at the National Portrait Gallery, and Dr Anita Callaway[11] from the University of Sydney, report that she attended Madame Pfund’s school whilst the Boyd biographer, Brenda Niall reported that she attended Madam Vieusseux’s school[12].

Elise Pfund

In 1867 Swiss-born Madame Elise Pfund (1833–1921) established Oberwyl, a highly regarded private girls’ school in St Kilda. She ran the school until 1885, although it continued to operate until 1931. The school was named after her home village of Oberwyl in Switzerland, and the school gained a reputation for its French culture and style.


Oberwyl provided classes from kindergarten to senior secondary levels and attracted both day girls and borders. Classes were offered in arithmetic, reading, writing, spelling, elocution, history, geography, mapping, scripture, nature study, music, singing, drama, dancing, drawing, needlework, physical culture and tennis.  Charitable work was an important part of the curriculum[13].

Together with her husband, architect and Victorian Surveyor-General, Elise Pfund was one of the important patrons of Heidleberg artists such Tom Roberts, who painted portraits of both Elise and her husband.

Julie Vieusseux

Brenda Niall wrote in her book, The Boyds, that Minnie had lessons at Madam Vieusseux’s school, where the ‘elegant, cultured and cosmopolitan’ principal set high standards in the teaching of art and French[14]. Marjorie Theobold states that the a’Beckett family were referees for the school when it began its formal existence in 1857[15], so it is likely that Boyd had some relationship with the school.

Julie and Lewis Vieusseux
Julie and Lewis Vieusseux

Madame Julie Vieusseux arrived in Australia in 1852 with her husband Lewis and their two small sons. They were among the thousands who migrated to Melbourne during the gold rush period.

Within a year she advertised “Drawing and Painting Classes for Young Ladies, who can enjoy the advantage of French conversation[16].



In 1857, Vieusseux founded the Vieusseux Ladies’ College. Her school swiftly became a highly fashionable establishment, were the upper classes enrolled their daughters. In 1863, the school had 103 students, an unusually high number for an Australian school for girls.

Louis Buvelot 1814 – 1888

Around the late 1870s or early 1880s Minnie received private lessons from a leading artist in Melbourne, Louis Buvelot.

J. C. Waite, Abram Louis Buvelot (inset) 1894
J. C. Waite, Abram Louis Buvelot (inset) 1894

Buvelot was born in Switzerland and settled in Melbourne in 1865 at the age of 51, with his wife Caroline-Julie Beguin.

After first earning a living in Melbourne as a photographer the year they arrived, Buvelot was able to concentrate on his painting, whilst Beguin, also an artist, supported them by teaching French.

Bouvelot preferred to paint directly from nature or plein air,  rather than painting exclusively in the studio from sketches.   He work is likened to the French Barbizon school and is considered to be the beginning of Realism in Australia.


By 1869 Buvelot’s paintings Winter morning near Heidelberg and Summer afternoon, Templestowe had been purchased by the Board of Trustees of the Public Library, as part of the beginnings of an Australian Collection for the National Gallery. A year later the Trustees added his Waterpool near Coleraine (sunset) to this collection.

At this time Buvelot was teaching landscape drawing at the Carlton Artisans’ School of Design where he had a significant influence on the founders of the Heidelberg School.

Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and Frederick McCubbin acknowledged him as the father of Australian landscape painting[18].  McCubbin wrote: ‘There was no one before him to point out the way; he possessed, therefore, in himself, the genius to catch and understand the salient living features of the country. I remember as if it were yesterday, standing one evening a long time ago, watching the sunset glowing in the trees in Studley Park, and it was largely through Buvelot that I realized the beauty of the scene[19].

National Gallery School

In 1876, 1877, 1879 and 1882[20]  Minnie attended the National Gallery School, which had only opened in 1867.

The Gallery School remained perhaps Australia’s most prestigious art education school, until its importance waned with the acceptance of modernism in the 1930s. Tuition at the school varied over the years, according to the interests of different teachers. Generally, however, classes followed the model of the European art academies. Students commenced their studies in the School of Design where they learnt the fundamentals of drawing, including outline drawing and tonal modelling of form. In the process they progressed from drawing plaster casts of antique sculptures to drawing from the human figure.

national school of art
Students at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School, 1895

The School of Painting taught traditional painting skills. These included compositional skills and the academic technique of building up a painting in many layers, starting with thin paint and dark tones, and finishing with thicker paint and lighter tones on the surface[21].

Artists who were studying there during that period included Emanuel Phillips Fox, Rupert Bunny, Frederick McCubbin, Tom Roberts, May Vale, Jane Sutherland, Clara Southern, Josephine Muntz Adams and Arthur Merric Boyd,  who was to become Minnie’s husband in 1886.

Eugène von Guérard 1811- 1901

Eugène von Guérard tutored Minnie in painting in 1876 and 1879.  He had been appointed master of the National Gallery of Victoria School of Art (painting) and inaugural curator of its collection in 1870.

Eugene Von Geurard photo

Born in Vienna and trained in the German Romantic tradition, which suggested the presence of divine powers in nature, he was one of a number of artists who came to Australia attracted by the discovery of gold.

He arrived in Australia in 1852 and spent about two years prospecting near Ballarat before moving to Melbourne, where he established himself as an artist. He gained a reputation for his landscapes and homestead portraits, and also for his wilderness subjects of waterfalls and mountains[22].

Eugène von Guérard, Spring in the Valley of the Mitta Mitta with the Bogong Ranges, 1866
Eugène von Guérard, Spring in the Valley of the Mitta Mitta with the Bogong Ranges, 1866

Although he was criticised for his outmoded techniques as a teacher, which restricted students to copying artworks in the gallery’s collection,[23] Minnie Boyd must have seen value in his style as she was under his tutelage for two years. She was also tutored by George Folingsby in painting and Oswald Rose Campbell in drawing whilst at the Gallery School.

Minnie had a solid grounding in the fundamentals in drawing, combined with skills in both the mediums of oil and watercolour.  Like many artists of the time, Minnie had kept a sketchbook from the mid 1870s and her first sketchbook, from 1874-1878, contains over 50 small and detailed drawings primarily relating to her home, the surrounding district and her family, friends and pets.

sketc 1


Minnie began exhibiting publicly as an amateur, at the age of 15, at the fourth VAA exhibition in 1874, with An Afternoon Nap, a watercolour of her mother asleep on a chaise lounge on their drawing room.  In the same year she painted a watercolour of her home, The Grange.

boy 1

Interior genre scenes were typical of her work at the time – depicting family and friends. These paintings of a leisurely lifestyle were often set against a backdrop of a window or door, inviting the viewer to become part of the scene. Even these early works demonstrate not only her painting and composition abilities, but also her understanding of light and shadow.

She also painted a series of botanic and still life works.


Although as a young single woman she didn’t travel in the same way as the male Heidelberg painters, many of whom she knew, she painted many landscapes during her career, initially around her country home in the hills of Parkaway, east of Melbourne, and then later on holiday in Tasmania, overseas in Britain and Europe and then again around the outskirts of Melbourne from the 1890s.

boy 3

By 1877 her status had changed from amateur to professional and in the following year three of her six oils and watercolours were exhibited with prices ranging from £6/6/0 for a watercolour drawing to £7/7/0 for the oil paintings and in 1879 her watercolour, Reaping, was one of the highest prices of all the watercolours at that exhibition [24]. By 1889 the asking price for her oil painting, The Letter, of £32 was comparable with the prices being asked for by Frederick McCubbin and Arthur Streeton at the same exhibition, given the size of her work which was only 60 x 40 cm.[25]

Buxtons Gallery melbourneShe also exhibited at Buxton’s Art Gallery on several occasions, the same gallery where the  famous 9 x 5 Impressionist exhibition was held in 1887. (Interestingly, in his paper, Arabesques of Beauty: Cullis Hill,  the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition, decorative decor and painting[26], Andrew Montana uses Minnie’s painting, Corner of a Drawing-Room, 1887, to demonstrate the ambience that the artists were aiming to achieve for the exhibition.)

Minnie herself was not interested in contributing to this exhibition, as her style was not Impressionistic, although she would have known the artists who had studied at the Gallery School whilst she was enrolled.

Minnie also contributed to the Victorian Jubilee Exhibition in 1884 and the Melbourne Centennial International Exhibition of 1888-89.

She also sent two painting to English exhibitions – the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London in 1886 and the Exhibition of Australian Art, London, in 1898. The artists  contributing to the Exhibition of Australian Art, including both Emma and her husband Arthur Boyd (whom she’d married in 1886),  reads like a ‘who’s who’ of leading Australian male and female painters of the time[27].

By the late 1880s she and Arthur were also working from a studio in Collins Street.

Children’s Book Illustrations

Minnie and Arthur spent a number of their holidays in Tasmania, where she also exhibited her paintings, and it is possible that she met children’s author and illustrator Louisa Anne Meredith there around 1889-89. Minnie was invited to prepare a number of illustrations for Meredith’s book, Waratah Rhymes.

boy 4

She also painted three watercolours for the story The Light on Goat Island written by Mary Gaunt and published in Childhood in bud and blossom : a souvenir book of the Children’s Hospital bazaar in 1900[28]. 


In 1890 Minnie and Arthur travelled to Britain and Europe, arriving firstly at Brindisi near the southern tip of Italy, where they made their way to England sketching and painting en route, and finally making their base at the family home of Penleigh House in Wiltshire (about a three hours train trip to London) where her parents were already living.

Emma Minnie Boyd, To the Workhouse, 1891
To the Workhouse, 1891

Whilst in England the Royal Academy in London accepted a painting by  Minnie, To the Workhouse.  for an exhibition in 1891.


Minnie’s mother Emma purchased To the Workhouse, and gifted it to the National Gallery of Victoria, which currently holds five of her paintings.

She also produced at least one etching while in Britain, Hiker leaving hillside village, in 1892.


At the same time Minnie was learning to paint small works in black and white from Henry Blackburn, the editor of London Society, who had a strong reputation for his illustrations. However, from about this time, the majority of her paintings were watercolours, which may have been because they were quick and easy to execute during the period when she had a growing family.

boy 5

In 1892 she also had paintings included in an exhibition in Bristol before leaving France for Italy in 1893 and then Lucerne in Switzerland (where their fourth child, Martin, was born).

Return to Melbourne

The land crash of 1893 in Melbourne meant that her parents income was halved[29],  and the family chose to return to Australia, with Minnie and Arthur arriving in 1894.

The end of “Marvellous” Melbourne spelt the end of a leisurely lifestyle, but nonetheless both Minnie and Arthur were able to continue as artists, assisted by her mother who was still able to provide financial support.

boy 6

To supplement their income, Minnie taught art to students in her city studio in the Cromwell buildings (owned by her mother), whilst also continuing to exhibit to the Victorian Artists Society – displaying a number of paintings from the travel abroad.

In 1902 Minnie and Arthur held a joint exhibition at the grand home of Como in Toorak, owned by their friends Caroline and Charles Armytage – where they were lauded as being ‘amongst the best of Australian artists[30]. They sold over £100 of paintings and were offered a number of commissions. At that time it was most unusual for artists to hold independent exhibitions, most artists exhibited more formally in groups.

in 1908, the Boyds later purchased a farm at Yarra Glen, with the inheritance Minnie received following Emma’s death.

Minnie’s first Yarra Glen landscapes soon appeared in the Victorian Artists Society exhibitions.  At this time her paintings were mostly small watercolours which were moderately priced at around the four or five guinea mark.

Paintings in her later years also included fewer figures – they were mainly landscapes, at which she was particularly adept.  She was also fortunate to live rurally and close to the sea, enabling her to easily find subjects for her paintings.

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Some observations about the Emma Minnie Boyd’s art

Minnie Boyd worked as a professional artist, who clearly not only took every opportunity to develop her skills through formal studies and tutelage, but also to test her abilities in a range of media – although she is best known for her watercolours. Not an easy medium to excel in, it can be worked with quickly, unlike oil painting, and this may have been important to her at the time when she became a parent.

She displayed an early talent, exhibiting her first painting in 1874, with her last entry in an exhibition in 1932 – just 4 years before her death.

Minnie’s subject matter included domestic scenes, portraiture, still life, buildings and landscapes. Early in her career her focus was genre painting (painting of scenes from everyday life)  with landscapes being favoured particularly after her return from Europe in the 1990s.  Some early paintings also  have some narrative – such as Ere Care Begins, 1887 and To the Workhouse, 1891, but her later works are more picturesque – views of the rivers, sea and rural areas in the areas where she lived.

Exhibiting and selling her work was important to her, and in the early 1890s her mother wrote, “Minnie [is] doing some trees, she likes doing them and Arthur says they sell better than other pictures[31].

Minnie had a strong sense of  composition – her paintings lead you in and around a scene, with a number of interesting points to hold your attention. Her genre paintings have attracted a great deal of interest because of their detail, for example, Corner of a Drawing Room, 1887 (below left). The curved archway, painted in an off-white, with the light shining through, leads you into an intimate space where you feel the family could re-gather at any time. It looks homely, domestic and also appealing, particularly with the drawn curtains that invite you outside. The touches in the scene, chairs, footstools, cushions, ceiling and wall motifs, flowers and artefacts, all give you a sense of time and place in Melbourne. It’s a very restful, well executed oil painting.

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Afternoon Tea, painted a year later in 1888, is a painting of two women in another domestic setting. This painting has also made good use of the light flowing through the window, although there is less detail in this work.

The figures in the painting appear to be posed in quiet contemplation and there is no indication of imminent movement. (Unlike Minnie’s own busy life I find these women represent the enforced idleness of many middle and upper class women of the time.)

Yet some of Minnie’s portraits are show a greater sense of character, including a self portrait painted in 1912.

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Although I haven’t found many examples of her still life and botanical pictures, they are well executed. For example, her flower studies from the 1870s and Flowerpiece (date unknown but after 1886).

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The first study appears to be painted in 1873 (the date is a bit unclear) when Minnie would have been just 15, the second shows and increasing confidence and skill. The Flowerpiece clearly shows a strong development in her work – very carefully composed in an Impressionist style – it’s a very arresting and peaceful work. It’s made more appealing by the simple addition of the book and glasses to the left, and the added touches of the scattered light red flowers – just enough to lift and brighten the work.

Like many professional artists, Minnie was highly proficient in drawing, having kept sketchbooks since she was a teenager, drawing botanical works and later contributing illustrations for at least one children’s book.

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Four of her works that I am particularly drawn to are A Bush Camp, c1870s, Doris Boyd sketching on the Yarra River, 1914, Fallen Tree (date unknown) and In Lucerne, 1893.

These four works span a 40 year period of her career, the first in oil and the others in watercolour.

Emma Minnie Boyd, A Bush Camp (c. 1870s)
A Bush Camp, c1870s

Bush Camp was painted during the 1870s, when Minnie was probably still in her teens. It has quite an Impressionistic style, at the time when Impressionism was reaching its peak in Europe. The brushstrokes are quite broad and flat,  with wonderful light coming into the picture, and the shadows are painted in deep mauve, not black or grey.

Tom Roberts, The Artists' Camp, 1887
Tom Roberts, The Artists’ Camp, 1887


It has a slight  ‘Heidelberg’ quality about it because of its subject, although it was painted the decade before Tom Roberts painted An Artists Camp in 1886 . (In Roberts’ painting I think that the pose of the sitting figure isn’t quite right – it looks awkward.)



Emma Minnie Boyd, Doris Boyd sketching on the Yarra River, 1914
Emma Minnie Boyd, Doris Boyd sketching on the Yarra River, 1914

The second painting, Doris Boyd sketching on the Yarra River, was painted in 1914 when Minnie was living at Yarra Glen with her family. Doris, her daughter in law, was also an artist. I find this pose more natural than some of her earlier figures, and the light colour of her dress takes you right into the picture, taking in all the painter’s equipment. The boot protruding from the skirt, painted in a similar colour to the hat, make the picture complete. It’s an idyllic painting of a person sitting in the sunshine absorbed in what they are doing.

Emma Minnie Boyd, Fallen Tree
Emma Minnie Boyd, Fallen Tree

Fallen Tree is a typical Australian rural painting for its era – immediately recognisable and comfortable for any-one who had lived in similar countryside. It’s a well composed painting, taken from a low vantage point, looking up to the majestic gum trees, the homestead with its chimney smoke and the mountains in the distance. There is a lovely device of the slightly darker and flatter grass that leads, like a meandering path, from the bottom right through to what could be a creek, then towards the centre and slightly left towards the house. The clouds are suggestive of rain that may have just moved through, with the sun now re-emerging. Overall, it’s very picturesque, and Minnie painted many other landscapes with the same careful composition which places us squarely in an Australian setting.

Emma Minnie Boyd, In Lucerne, 1893,


I really enjoy the modern-ness of Minnie’s painting, In Lucerne, painted in Switzerland in 1893 shortly before she returned to Australia. The simple wash, with a limited palette, but a splash of red on the stall, gives it a simplicity which works with the subject matter.  You can see how again Minnie is using the winding street to lead us from the front bottom left through to the centre of the picture, and the vertical proportions appear to be equal to the ‘golden ratio’.



Emma Minnie Boyd was one of the few women who was able to combine her profession as an artist with marriage and a family, while at the same time holding a strong religious ethic and devotion to charitable works.

She was able to achieve this, not only as a result of her talent and commitment,  but also because she was born into a family with a strong interest in art who could afford to support not only her herself and her family during her lifetime.  Her husband, Arthur Merric Boyd, also an artist, put no obstacles in her way and they painted and exhibited together. For most of her married life, she also had some assistance in caring for her children and maintaining her home (although she was certainly active in these activities).

She was fortunate to be born at the time that Melbourne was expanding rapidly, where she had access to private education, tuition at the Gallery School and the ability to regularly show her work at numerous exhibitions, initially as an amateur and then professionally, both in Australia and Britain. She was also fortunate to be painting at a time of growing nationalism, with other well known artists from the ‘golden’ period of plein air painting.

A prodigious artist, she entered her work in many exhibitions and received numerous art awards, sold her paintings profitably and her work has been acquired by a number of state and regional galleries as well as the National Gallery of Australia.

Andrea Hope

Kiama Art Gallery

You’ll find the full article, together with the Bibliography, on my Australian Art History Website

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[1] Museums Victoria, Marvellous Melbourne,

[2] Melbourne International Exhibition 1880,

Official catalogue of the Exhibition, Volume One, p48

[3] Lisanne Gibson, The uses of art, University of Queensland Press ,St Lucia, Qld, 2001, p32

[4] Louise Douglas, Representing colonial Australia at British, American and European international exhibitions, The National Museum of Australia’s journal reCollections (March 2008, Vol 3 No 1).

[5] Melbourne International Exhibition 1880, Official catalogue of the Exhibition, Volume One

[6] Dr Anne Sanders, Less than Six Degrees of Separation, Lecture, 28 May 2011, National Portrait Gallery, Australia

[7] National Library of Australia, Picturing Australia, 2009, p70

[8]  Brenda Niall, Life class: biographer of the Boyds, Brenda Niall considers the role of the Victorian Gallery School in their careers. (Essay). Meanjin, June 2003, p. 120+

[9] Marjorie Theobald, Boundaries, Bridges, and the History of Education: An Australian Response to Maxine Schwartz Seller. History of Education Quarterly, vol. 33, no. 4, 1993, pp. 497–510, p502

[10] Dr Anne Sanders

[11] Anita Callaway, Emma Minnie Boyd, Design & Art Australia Online,, 1995

[12] Brenda Niall, The Boyds, Melbourne University Press, 2002 p57

[13] Edel Wignall, Christina’s Matilda, Interactive Publications, 2011

[14] Brenda Niall, The Boyds,  p57

[15] Marjorie Theobold, Knowing Women: Origins of Women’s Education in Nineteenth-century Australia, Cambridge University Press, 1966, p45

[16] Marjorie Theobald, Boundaries, Bridges, and the History of Education, p 504

[17] Marjorie Tipping, Eugène von Guérard’s Australian Landscapes, 1st ed, Lansdowne Press, Melbourne, 1975.

[18] Ella Fry, Gallery Images, St George Books, Perth, 1984

[19] William Moore, The Art of Frederick McCubbin, Melbourne, 1916, quoted in The Story of Australian Art, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1934

[20] Jane Alexander, Emma Minnie Boyd 1858 –  1936, Morning Peninsula Regional Gallery, exhibition curator,  c2004, p8.

[21]National Gallery of Victoria, Australian Impressionism

[22] National Gallery of Australia, Eugene von Guerard: ‘Purrumbete from across the lake, 1858’, ABC Education


[24] Jane Alexander,  p9.

[25] Jane Alexander, p17

[26] Andrew Montana, Arabesques of Beauty: Cullis Hill,  the 9 by 5 Impression Exhibition, decorative decor and painting, State Library of Victoria,

[27] Exhibition of Australian art in London : Grafton Galleries, Grafton Street, London, W., 2nd April to 7th May, 189, National Library of Australia

[28]Jane  Alexander, p 20

[29] Martin Boyd, A Single Flame, Dent & Sons Limited, 1939, p6.

[30] Jane Alexander, p21

[31] Brenda Niall, The Boyds, p103.






Raoul Dufy and the Colour Blue

If there is one thing that’s distinctive about artist Raoul Dufy (1877 – 1953) it is his use of the colour blue, and I was treated to many of his works at an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art at Le Havre in France.

Dufy stated;

Blue is the only colour that holds onto its individuality in all its shades. Take the various tones of blue, from the darkest to the lightest and they will still be blue; whereas yellow goes black in the shadows and it vanishes at its lightest; dark red turns into brown and red diluted with white isn’t red, but pink – a different colour“.

Raoul Dufy, Pink Bridge and Railway, c 1935

Raoul Dufy, still life with fish and fruit, 1920-22

I think the paintings above are easily recognised as the work of Dufy, with his simple lines and beautifully deep shades of blue.

Raoul Dufy was born in Havre in 1877 where he later trained as an artist, and the colour blue predominates in even his earlier works – not surprisingly as he painted the coast around Le Havre, but you can see that these paintings are subtle and traditional in style.

Raoul Dufy, Le Quai De l’Ile, 1898

Raoul Dufy, Honfluer , 1898

Raoul Dufy, Le Havre, The Docks, 1898

“The unique setting of Le Havre is what made me the artist I am. It was there that I worked with Lhullier, who was an excellent teacher, but it was also where as a 17-year-old employed by an import firm, I supervised dockers. I spent all my time on the decks of ships: it is an ideal training for a painter. I breathed all the perfumes that wafted from the holds. I knew by smell whether a boat came from Texas, the Indies or the Azures, and it fired my imagination. I was transported by the miraculous light of the estuaries, the like of which I’ve only found in Syracuse. Until about 20th August it is radiant; then it takes on increasingly Silver tones. “

From Rene Barotte,with Raoul Duffy on his return to Paris, Comedia, 5 February, 1944

Dufy’s development and Influences

Dufy studied at the Ecole Nationaledes Beaux-Arts in Paris but returned frequently to Le Havre where he was able to see the extensive works of Eugene Boudin at the Le Havre Museum. Like Boudin, Monet and others, he focused on seaside imagery. Impressionism was still the primary artistic movement in France in the early 20th Century, so Dufy’s focus was on rendering the shifting light effects and shimmering air. However, you can see how Dufy’s painting are more strongly outlined, with a frequent use of black.

It was during this phase that his work became less structured, with longer brush strokes, and a freer hand.

Raoul Dufy, Le Havre Beach, 1904

“I had done the beaches in the manner of Impressionists, and I had reached a point of saturation… On day, unable to bear it any longer, I went out with just my box of paints and a sheet of paper. When I came to a beach subject, I set out my equipment and started looking at my tubes of paint and my brushes. How, using this, could I succeed in rendering not what I see, but what it, what exists for me, my reality? … From that day forth, it was impossible for me to go back to my sterile tussles with the elements that offered themselves to my gaze.”

It was not long after this that he saw a Fauvist painting by Henri Matisse, Luxury, Calm and Pleasure, at the Salon des Independants in March 1905 – and this was a revelation for him.

Henri Matisse, Luxury, Calm and Pleasure, 1904

In front of that picture … I understood all the new reasons to paint, and Impressionist realism lost its charm for me as I contemplated the miracle wrought by introducing the imagination into drawing and colour. I instantly understood the new pictorial mechanics.”

Raoul Dufy, Le Havre Beach, 1906

Raoul Dufy, 14 July in Le Havre, 1906

Raoul Dufy, The Yacht Harbour in The Bassin du Commerce in Le Havre, 1905-6

Until 1907 Dufy experimented with Fauvism, painting in Le Havre and other areas within Normandy.

With his friend Albert Marquet, he painted the harbour, streets decorated with flags for the 14th of July, boats moored on the quay, the pier and beaches. His drawings become even freer at this point and he works more with stronger colours and more chaotic brushstrokes. And the colour blue is still strongly featured.

Paul Cezanne, Chateau Noir, c1904 (inset)

In 1907, a retrospective of Paul Cézanne’s work was shown in Paris, and this had a profound effect on a number of painters, including Picasso and Braque, and which was a key factor in the development of Cubism.

Cézanne stated ” Treat nature via the cylinder, the sphere and the cone, and use perspective so that each side of an object or a plane leads towards a central point”.

Dufy was clearly influenced by Cézanne and in 1908 worked alongside Georges Braque at L’Estague, painting landscapes with a strong focus on structure, in a cubist manner. When he returned to Le Havre, he painted panoramas of the beach, the casino and fishing.

Raoul Dufy, Fishermen with Shrimp Nets in Le Havre, 1910

Raoul Dufy, Sainte-Adresse Beach, 1912

Raoul Dufy, The Old Port of Mareille and Notre Dame de la Garde, 1908

In these paintings, he is focused on introducing more density, space and geometry – using vertical planes which lead to an unusually high horizon with only a small amount of sky.

You can also see that his colours are influenced by Cézanne and cubism as this time – with more oranges, greens and browns, but still with his signature use of blues.

This influence is still obvious in his sea bather series in the 1910s.

I am working on my big canvas [which is] entirely covered by a woman bather in her ever-so-modern navy blue bathing costume with white edging and embroidered anchors around the neck and the usual little waterproof bathing cap … As a backdrop, the charming slope of Saint-Adresse with its terraced greenery and its red brick houses with round and square turrets”.

Letter from Dufy to Fernand Fleuret, 8 June 1913

Raoul Dufy, Large Woman Bather, 1914

Dufy produced numerous variations on this work during his career, reflecting a relaxed Le Havre lifestyle.

It’s after this time that Dufy’s work becomes distinctively his own, creating paintings which are more playful, colourful, and with a freer hand.

Raoul Dufy, The English Squadron’s Visit to Le Havre, c1935

Raoul Dufy, The Pier and the Beach in Le Havre, c1926

Raoul Dufy, Strollers in front of the Casino de la Jetee in Nice, 1948

Raoul Dufy, Regatta Boats Setting Sail in Deauville, c 1835 – 36

I’ve added another couple of strongly coloured pictures, without the blue focus but very strong paintings, with red and black.

Raoul Dufy, The Studio in Venice, 1945

Raoul Dufy, The Red Violin, 1949

Dufy moved to the South of France for heath reasons during the Second World War and remained there until his death in 1953, returning only briefly to Le Havre.

He used Le Havre and Saint Adresse as the backdrop for his final series of paintings, using cargo ships as his subject.

He wrote

” The sun at its zenith is black. You are dazzled; you can no longer see anything in front of you. The dominant impression is of black. You have to take black as your starting point [for] … a composition that finds brightness in the contrasts between colours.”

Raoul Dufy, The Black Cargo Ship, C1948-52

Raoul Dufy, The Black Cargo Ship, c 1948-52

Although Dufy uses large swatches of black convincingly in these paintings, it will always be his vivid use of blues that will come to mind whenever I think of this artist.

Primary Source: The Museum of Modern Art, Le Havre.

Eugène Boudin – Inspiration to Monet


I’m in Honfleur, which is a beautiful old town on the coast in Normandy in France, for few days. Its just the beginning of my 2019 European holiday and I’m excited as my mother’s family are from Normandy.

I did a little research before I left to find any galleries in the area, and discovered an artist named Eugène Boudin, after whom the local art museum is named.

Boudin was born in 1824 in Honfleur where his father operated a ferry service across the Seine estuary between Honfleur and Le Havre.

Following an accident on the ferry when he fell almost drowned, his mother sent him to school. Boudin’s abilities were recognised and he was encouraged to develop his artistic talent.

His family moved across the river to Le Havre in 1835,  where his father started a picture framing and stationery business. (Although the research I did was a little contradictory, it is likely that Eugène also had a share in this business.)

During Boudin’s lifetime the Channel coast between France and England was transformed by tourism. By the 1830s some small fishing villages were accommodating visitors from both countries. This included tourists in search of the healthful benefits of sea water and air, as well as artists who took the opportunity to paint scenic locales and peasant life.

Both Jean-Francois Millet (1814-75), a founding members of the French Barbizon School of landscape painting, and Constant Troyon (1810- 65) sold their paintings at the Boudin family shop, and Eugène was able to study their works, and talk such to artists as miniature painter Jean-Baptiste Isabey (1767–1855) and the history painter Thomas Couture (1815–79).

However, his art hero at the time was Dutch landscape master Johan Jongkind (1819-1891).

Louis Gabriel Isabey, Low Ebb Tide, 1861

Johan Barthold Jongkind, Quay in Honfluer, 1866

In 1846 Boudin started painting full-time.

Sponsored by former artist clients of the framing business, Boudin went to Paris to study and copy in the Louvre, and in 1851 the town of Le Havre awarded him a three-year scholarship to support his study. In Paris he developed an interest in the paintings of Realist painter Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.

In 1857 Boudin met the young Claude Monet (who also lived in Le Havre) who spent several months working with him in his studio. The two remained lifelong friends and Monet later paid tribute to Boudin’s early influence.

Drawing of Monet, presumed to be by Boudin
Drawing of Monet, presumed to be by Boudin

Monet later commented,

If I have become a painter, I owe it to Eugène Boudin.”

Claude Monet, Winter Sun, Lavacourt, c1879-80

By the middle of the 1850s, plein-air painting was becoming an established tradition. Painting styles were changing and artists began to paint nature with a spontaneous approach. Boudin, together with Camille Corot, was a strong influence on young Impressionist painters.

Boudin wrote:

anything painted directly, on the spot, always has a strength, a power, a lively touch that is lost in the studio. Your first impression is the right one. Stick to it and refuse to budge.

Boudin made his debut at the Paris Salon in 1859, and continued to exhibit with the Salon for years. (He participated in the Impressionist’s first exhibition of 1874, but not in any subsequent exhibitions, preferring instead to exhibit within the Salon system.)

He began to paint tourist scenes in 1862; at about the same time as a new rail line opened from Paris to Trouville-Deauville, making travel to these resorts much easier. Beach vacationers were unconventional subjects for artists at that time. They had leisure time and money to spend, and were the patrons as well as the subjects of his art.

(Prior to this, paintings of seascapes, if they had figures, they were more typically of fishermen or peasant washerwomen.)

Also, by this time it was much easier to paint out doors portable with easels being available, as well as oil paint  in tubes.


Boudin quickly established the pattern he would follow throughout his career: in summer he traveled to paint outdoor sketches that he would complete in his Paris studio over the winter. He stayed along the Channel coast, mostly in Normandy and Brittany.

Boudin’s growing reputation enabled him to travel extensively in the 1870s. He visited Belgium, the Netherlands, and southern France, and from 1892 to 1895 made regular trips to Venice. He continued to exhibit at the Paris Salons, receiving a third place medal at the Paris Salon of 1881, and a gold medal at the 1889 Exposition Universelle. In 1892 Boudin was made a knight of the Legion d’honneur.

He died in 1898 in Deauville, not far from Honfleur, at the age of 74.

It was against this background that I visited the Eugène Boudin Museum in Honfleur – unfortunately I couldn’t take photos in the gallery so the ones below are some I found online which are representative of works I saw there.


Eugène Boudin, Concert at the Casino of Deauville, 1865, oil on canvas

Eugène Boudin, On the Jetty, c. 1869 1870, oil on wood

Eugène Boudin, Bathing Time at Deauville, 1865, oil on wood

I think they are nice little tourist paintings, but my real surprise came when I visited the Museum of Modern Art at Le Havre the following day and found many more of his artworks. 


You can see from his use of colour, light and his loose brushstrokes why he would have been such an influence on Claude Monet and other Impressionists  – these artworks capture the time and place beautifully, and are wonderfully modern paintings.

Boudin was nicknamed the “king of the skies” by Camille Carot, and the images above demonstrate why he earned this nickname.

Eugène Boudin was a wonderfully talented artist whom I was delighted to discover, and it’s a shame that he isn’t more well known. Again, another reason why I love to visit galleries when I travel – there are always wonderful surprises.

Sources include:

The Eugène Boudin Gallery in Honfleur

The Art Gallery of New South Wales

The National Gallery of Art in Washington DC

MuMA d’art Modern Andre Malraux

ecourse icon          Australian Art History

Analytic Cubism – Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie 1911-12

Analytical Cubism  was the early phase of cubism  (from about 1908-12) which was  characterised by the pronounced use of geometric shapes, fragmentation, multiple viewpoints and monochromatic use of colour.

Paintings produced at this time were often more detailed than later cubist works, with images often gathered tightly toward the centre of the painting, growing sparser toward the edges. Although figures and objects were dissected or “analysed” into a multitude of small facets, these were then reassembled in a different format to evoke those same figures or objects.

An excellent example of Analytical Cubism is a work by Pablo Picasso called Ma Jolie.

The name Ma Jolie, (My pretty girl) came from a popular song performed at a Parisian music hall. It was also Picasso’s nickname for his lover Marcelle Humbert (also known as Eva Gouel). So, we can assume that the painting would reference both a woman, probably Eva, and music.

Picasso composed the figure into different planes, angles, lines, and shadings, completely abstracting the face of the woman.

Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie, 1911-12

Before looking at the other images and reading the rest of the article, please look at the overall picture and examine it to see what shapes you can identify  – look for both musical references and the figure of a woman.

I can see a woman’s head in the large triangular shape on a 45 degree angle in the top right quarter, just above the centre. Straight lines (running diagonally from near top left towards the lower right)  represent her shoulders, with a slim neck at the centre. The sharp angle at the top of the left shoulder line suggests an elbow, and what could be the right arm (in cream) coming from below the shoulder and then bent back towards the shape of a musical instrument, possibly a guitar, as if she is holding it.



This is what I interpret to be her face. There seems to be two images here. One of the larger triangular face, and within this, a softer more traditional drawing of a woman’s face, with a clearly identifiable eye on the left, and part of an eye on the right, with a lopsided smile. Perhaps the dashes above the forward are her hair, or a hat.


In this section, below the woman’s shoulders I can see her fingers (quite thick cylindrical shapes) on the left, strumming the guitar – you can see the vertical strings of the instrument.

Here Picasso has given us the clue as to what the image is about. We have the play on words of Ma Jolie, and the treble clef to let us know that this is image contains both a musical reference and a reference to his lover.


This is a photo of Eva – I think you can see the similarity in the profile in this photo and the faint drawing of her face in Ma Jolie.

Picasso was devastated by her early death in 1915.



Does this picture work for you as a faceted (broken up) image which combines both a women’s face and music? What other clues can you find which might tell us more about what Picasso was attempting to show us?

If you would like to know more about Cubism, or any other style of Modern Art, visit my website, Introduction to Modern European Art.

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Eileen Mayo – Painter, Printmaker and Designer

While visiting the Christchurch gallery in New Zealand earlier this year, I came across a wonderful exhibition of the work of Eileen Mayo (1909 – 1994). 

Even though she lived  in Australia from the early 1950s until the early 1960’s, I didn’t know much about her. The work in the exhibition consisted mainly of prints and postage stamps, and it wasn’t until I did some further research that I discovered what a diverse artist Mayo was.

Eileen Mayo, Lobster Pot, Tempera on Board, early 1940s

She worked in almost every medium available to her during her career – oil painting (including murals), tempura, prints (including lithographs, linocuts, wood engraving and silkscreens). She was also an author of several nature books and had an interest in calligraphy.

As well, Mayo executed a number of designs for the Diaghilev Ballets Russes.

She was particularly highly regarded for her book illustrations,  as well as poster, postage stamp, book plate, diorama, tapestry and coin design.

Earlier in her career May also worked as a model to some of the best-known British artists of the day, including Laura Knight, Dod Proctor, Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant. (It was through Knight that she received her first major commission, which started her very successful career as an illustrator.)

Mayo actively demonstrated the Arts and Crafts movement’s belief that applied arts was of the same value as fine arts  – largely as an outcome of her training at the Slade School of Fine Arts at the University of London andat the Central School of Arts and Crafts in London (where she studied lithography, calligraphy and wood engraving).  Like other artists of the time her aim was to bring her talents into people’s home and workplaces and to make a living doing so.

She described an artist as ” … a work[er] who designs and/or makes things of our ordinary lives as beautiful as they can be“.[i] She argued that any division between ‘fine’ art and other art forms was illusory.

Equally, Mayo believed that painting was a craft to be mastered. In her review of M. Maroger’s, The Secret Formulas and Techniques of the Masters (1949), she wrote, “We are so obsessed with the idea of painting being an ART that we forget, or even deliberately deny, that of its very nature (since it is not abstract but concrete) it is also a craft[ii].


A legacy  from her study at the Slade was a pictorial logic to her work based on the geometry of Piero della Francesca and the linear draughtsmanship of  Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.

According to biographer Jillian Cassidy, as a child Mayo was pre-occupied with drawing from nature, and had “anxious perfectionism and a predilection for making every task as difficult as possible in order to prove both her personal integrity as well as her artistic worth both to herself and to those around her[iii].

This focus on perfectionism remained with her throughout her career and as she took on new media, she went to great lengths to study her craft. For example, she was famously instructed by Claude Flight over the telephone on how to make a linocut.

In the 1930s she studied at Chelsea Polytechnic with Robert Medley, Henry Moore and Harold James, as well as studying lithography at Horsham School of Art with Vincent Lines.  In the 1940s Mayo travelled to France where she undertook a study of the historic tapestries at Cluny and Angers and studied tapestry design at the Tabard Ateliers at Aubusson.  She was taught the art of tapestry designing at St Céré by Jean Lurcat, the master of contemporary tapestry design.

Mayo also attended life drawing classes in France with Fernard Legér[iv].

Mayo also applied her perfectionism to her oil painting. She stated “I am especially concerned about the texture of paint. I like to think that if a small piece were removed from any part of a picture it would be interesting in itself“.[v]

Eileen Mayo, Still Life with a Painting of the Dancer Karsavina, c1920

(However, she was later to identify that painting was not her greatest strength.)

From the late in 1920s her work began to be commissioned for book illustrations and she produced linocuts, lithographs and wood engravings.

In the mid 1930s Mayo travelled by cargo ship to Durban, South Africa, where she made numerous drawings of the Zulu people as well as the  local fauna and flora, which she developed into paintings and prints on her return to England.

She produced her first book, commissioned by Waverly Book Company, in 1944, The Story of Living Things and their Evolution. It contained 300 pages of text and over 1,000 illustrations. Shells and How They Live was published the same year.

In 1945 Mayo wrote and illustrated two more books: Little Animals of the Countryside and Larger Animals of the Countryside, amongst others produced during her career.

Also in 1945 she exhibited her work for the first time at the Royal Academy. It was a lithograph titled Squirrel.

Eileen Mayo, The Squirrel, c1932, National Gallery of Victoria

By 1950 her prints were being more widely exhibited, including at Victoria and Albert Museum and at the Leicester Galleries. (The Victoria and Albert Museum currently holds 89 of her works in their collection.)

It was at this time that she began teaching lithography and illustration at Sir John Cass College and drawing at St Martin’s School of Art, and exhibiting at the Society of Women Artists at the Royal Institute Gallery and with the Royal British Artists.

In 1951, her tapestry Echinoderms was among three contemporary works selected for the exhibition English Tapestries shown during the Festival of Britain.

It was against this background, with her marriage over, that Mayo left England for Australia in 1952.

Eileen Mayo in Australia

Mayo arrived in Sydney suffering from depression and feeling guilty about the breakdown of her marriage.  She had made the move because her youngest sister was already living in Sydney, as were her friends Carol and George Foote.

With her substantial background in printmaking in particular, Mayo made a significant contribution to art in Australia, particularly as printmaking was enjoying a resurgence in interest during the 1960s.

She very quickly became friendly with Hal Missingham  (also a printmaker) who was the Director of the Art Gallery of New South Wales, Elizabeth Pope from the Australian Museum, Douglas and Dorothy Dundas from the Australian Art School as well as Sir Daryl Lindsay (Director) and Dr Ursula Hoff (Assistant Keeper of Prints and Drawings) from the National Gallery of Victoria.

She exhibited in galleries across Australia and her prints were received with acclaim – only a year after her arrival she won the Albany Prize for printmaking  and her Woman and Siamese Cat (1952) won the Ku ring gai prize for prints in 1960. Her print Pumpkin won a prize in Adelaide in 1962. One major difficulty she faced in producing lithographs in Sydney at that time was the limited number of lithographic presses.

Mayo’s major focus while she lived in Australia was on earning a living through teaching (at East Sydney Technical College) and design commissions.

Overseas tourist travel during the war was almost nonexistent, but by the 1950s it was again becoming popular, and the Australian National Travel Association (ANTA) was commissioning innovative posters to promote tourism.

Three of Mayo’s poster designs were included in the 1955-57 edition of Modern Publicity which was a worldwide advertising journal. These designs were Discover Australia, Cockatoo and Banksia, and Koalas. Her Desert Pea design appeared in the 1958-59 edition and Great Barrier Reef in the subsequent edition. (Mayo wasn’t a newcomer to postermaking, having designed them since the 1930s.)

In 1957 she submitted several stamp designs to the Stamp Advisory Committee of the Postmaster General’s Department, in Melbourne. Although they weren’t considered to be suitable she was commissioned (at the suggestion of Daryl Lindsay) to prepare six possible stamps, each depicting an Australian animal  (such as the kangaroo, koala, opossum, Tasmanian tiger, banded anteater and bandicoot) which could be engraved for recess printing.

As with any work she undertook, she undertook thorough research. “My sources of information are whatever I can get and wherever I can find them.[vi]” This included museum specimens, photographs, colour slides, book illustrations and a visit to Taronga Park Zoo.

Although biologically correct, Mayo’s stamps were stylised decorative drawings, rather than photographic representations of the animals.  She considered that  ” … their design [should be] striking, simple and up to date without being gimmicky, which makes them old fashioned in a year or two[vii]“.

Such was the success of her designs, six Animals stamps were issued between 1959 and 1962, and Stamp Collecting Annual (UK) selected three Mayo designed stamps for the world’s top ten stamps of the year during three consecutive years[viii].

In 1964 when the French Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications invited the Australian Post Office to participate in an International Philatelic Exhibition in Paris, the Australian Post-Master General extended an invitation to Mayo to represent the country at the exhibition. “In view of your recent work for this Department, I would therefore like to offer you the opportunity of participating in this International Exhibition”. [ix]

From the late 1950s Mayo undertook mural painting commissions, including the Tree of the Invertebrates (which consisted of fifty-five panels) for the Australian Museum, Sydney in 1959 and a mural for the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) in 1961.

The Invertebrate Tree was organised to commemorate the centenary of the publication of Charles Darwin’s book The Origin of the Species. Measuring nine metres by two metres, over 20 people completed the mural over a period of 19 months. Mayo’s contribution consisted of 55 paintings of scientifically accurate enlargements of animals (such as insects, spiders, snails, jellyfish, scorpions, seashells, sea urchins and anemones) normally too small to be seen by the naked eye.

Unfortunately this mural no longer exists.

Her work for the CSIRO was for the main foyer for the building, however, as it was still under construction, Mayo executed the work in synthetic resin “applied by an old kitchen knife and a fine sable brush on panels of marine ply wood in her garage at Neutral Bay[x].

According to her great niece, the CSIRO mural did survive. “When the old CSIRO building was demolished, they were able to relocate it to their new one, as the mural had been painted on large boards (in Eileen’s garage in Neutral Bay)[xi] .

Mayo also had a number of smaller commissions. She worked for the Display Department at David Jones, between August 1953 and April 1954. Her diaries record the designing of advertisements for knitting machines, sun tan lotions and promotions for ‘Lower Ground Floor Bargains’. She also painted panels of birds and animals for a window display.

Another commission was to work on colour combinations for Claudio Alcorso of Silks and Textiles Printers Pty Ltd in Hobart in 1957. Mayo’s role  was to make colourways for the designs produced by the various artists, often five or six of them to preserve the tone values. Although offered a full time position, she was just beginning to establish good design contacts in Sydney and there was also the prospect of full-time teaching at the East Sydney Technical College.

Mayo also designed the decoration for a dinner set for the Reserve Bank of Australia’s Board Room in Melbourne. Although the Board appear to have approved her wild flower motif drawn between narrow brown bands, the dinner set was not produced.

Mayo moved to New Zealand to be with her mother and sister Margery in 1962, and she was created a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 1994 New Year Honours one week before her death at the age of 87.

Eileen Mayo was driven not only by a sense of perfectionism, but also one of self doubt, during her long and successful career.

She was an artist who fully believed that fine art and arts and crafts were of the same value, and also believed in the importance of indepth study to develop technique. This meant that she placed no limitations on her art practices.

She amply demonstrated her abilities across a range of media, particularly in design, illustrations, various forms of printmaking and tempera painting.

I’m so pleased to have visited Christchurch gallery and discovered this wonderful artist, and the contribution she made to art in Australia, as well in New Zealand and the UK.

[i] Barbara R. Mueller, “The Stamp of the Artist,” Western Stamp Collector, 21 July, 1962, p 3.

[ii] Art News & Review, Vol. I, no. 6, 1947, p. 7.

[iii] Margaret Jillian Cassidy, SHIFTING BOUNDARIES: THE ART OF EILEEN MAYO, 2000. p23-24

[iv] ibid, p12.

[v] Jillian Cassidy, Eileen Mayo, Her Prints, Posters and Postage Stamps, in Woman’s Art Journal, vol 24, No1 p 17-22

[vi] Correspondence, Mayo to Mueller, 15 August I 961

[vii] Correspondence, Mayo to Gil Docking, Director of the City of Auckland Art Gallery, 28 April 1965.


[ix] Correspondence, Australian Postmaster General to Mayo, 1964

[x] Cassidy, Shifting Boundaries, p 162

[xi] Lucie Stanford, great niece of Eileen Mayo



Jillian Cassidy, Eileen Mayo, Her Prints, Posters and Postage Stamps, in Woman’s Art Journal, vol 24,

Design and Art Australia online

Independent Obituary: Dame Eileen Mayo, JOHN GAINSBOROUGH, Wednesday 5 January 1994

Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetū

Victoria and Albert Museum

Art Gallery of New South Wales

Australia Post

Lucie Stanford, great niece of Eileen Mayo

Cubism – A Brief Introduction

Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910
Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910

Cubism was a short-lived Modern art movement from around 1908 – 1922, which has had an enduring impact on artists and painting styles.

Cubist painters re-examined and challenged the concept that art should copy nature, and also challenged the traditional techniques of perspective, modeling and foreshortening.

In cubist works the artists combined a large range of viewpoints (multiple perspectives) in one picture and broke down the natural forms of subjects into geometric shapes.

This style of painting was largely influenced by Paul Cezanne, following a commemorative exhibition of his work in Paris in 1907.  In particular, the exhibition demonstrated Cezanne’s

  • use of geometric shapes,
  • build-up of small brushstrokes,
  • flattened perspective, and
  • way of viewing his subject from shifting positions.

You’ll also see that early cubist works contained similar colours to many works by Cezanne, that is beige, creams, greys, black, greens and browns.

Another key influence was African art, with its vibrant expressive qualities and simplification of forms as planes or facets. A number of cubist artists purchased African tribal masks, which were common and cheap in Paris curio shops.   However, they were not interested in the true religious or social symbolism of these cultural objects, but valued them for their expressive style. Similarly, artists were also influenced by Iberian sculpture.

The birth of Cubism is attributed to Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, who collaborated closely for some years from 1907, after being introduced by Art dealer Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler, who promoted Cubism from its inception. They were joined by a number of other artists from about 1910, including Fernand Léger, Sonia Delauney, Robert de la Fresnaye, Juan Gris, Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay, Marie Laurencin, and Marie Vorobieff (Marevna).

In 1908,  Henri Matisse labelled Braque’s work “les petites cubes,” leading the critic Louis Vauxcelles to coin the term Cubism.



paul cézanne the bibémus quarry c 1895 c
Paul Cézanne The Bibémus Quarry c.1895

georges braque viaduct at l'estaque 1908
Georges Braque, Viaduct at L’Estaque 1908

Picasso would have seen 9th century sculpture similar in style to this in Paris

pablo picasso head of a sleeping woman 1907
Pablo Picasso, Head of a Sleeping Woman, 1907

Cubist art can be identified by the following features:

  • Geometric shapes;

  • Multiple viewpoints

  • Influence of African masks and Iberian sculpture;

  • Monochromatic colours in early phase;

  • Every day subject matter;

  • Collage, Papier Collé and Assemblage.


Cubist Styles

Cubism is generally divided into two stages;


Analytical Cubism  – the early phase of cubism  (from about 1908-12) is chiefly characterised by the pronounced use of geometric shapes, fragmentation, multiple viewpoints and monochromatic use of colour.


Paintings produced at this time were often more detailed than later cubist works, with images often gathered tightly toward the centre of the painting, growing sparser toward the edges. Although figures and objects were dissected or “analysed” into a multitude of small facets, these were then reassembled, after a fashion, to evoke those same figures or objects.



Synthetic cubism refers to the later cubist works (from about 1912-1922)  in which the artists synthesised or combined forms, creating three new art techniques.

  • One was collage, using pre-existing materials or objects pasted (or otherwise adhered) to a two-dimensional surface. The artists used collage to further challenge the viewer’s understanding of reality and representation.

  • The second was papier collé, or cut-and-pasted paper including words, graphics and patterns, to achieve a desired thematic result.

  • The third is assemblage, or a three-dimensional collage.  Assemblage was a major breakthrough in sculpture. For the first time in Western art, sculpture was not modelled in clay, cast in plaster and metal, or carved of stone or another material. This would pave the way for other artists to assemble found objects up to the present day.


During this period colours were much brighter, geometric forms were more distinct, and textures began to emerge with additives like sand, paper or gesso.


Pablo Picasso Still-life with Mask  4 March 1937.PNG
Pablo Picasso, Still-life with Mask, 4 March 1937


Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso –  The beginnings of Cubism


In 1908, Braque completed a number of landscapes in the French fishing village of L’Estaque  (see above) that reduced everything to geometric patterns, (or cubes, according to Matisse). By this time, Picasso had already finished his painting Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907) which also incorporated the use of geometry, as well as African art. (read more about this painting in Introduction to Modern European Art)


pablo picasso les demoiselles d'avignon 1907
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, 1907

The two artists began working together in 1909, spending much time together talking about, as much as painting, this new style of art. It is clear that they were enjoying experimenting with geometry, perspective, and representing three dimensions in a two dimensional space (the canvas).  They wanted to introduce the idea of ‘relativity’ – how the artist perceives and selects elements from the subject, fusing both their observations and memories into the one concentrated image. To do this they spent some time considering the way that people actually see. 


They felt that when you look at an object your eye scans it, stopping to register certain details before moving on to the next point of interest, and so on.  A viewer can also change their viewpoint in relation to an object by looking at it from above, below or from the side. As a result they proposed that ‘seeing’ an object is the sum of many different viewpoints,  and your memory of an object is constructed  from many angles depending on your line of sight and your movement. For Braque and Picasso the whole idea of space was reconfigured: the front, back and sides of the subject become interchangeable elements in the design of the work.


They began to fracture (break up) the objects they were painting into a large number of sharp-angled shapes, known as facets, all painted from different perspectives. During 1909 – 1911 their multi perspectives became more radical. The facets were drawn from different angles, and often appeared to overlap. The result could be somewhat like a jigsaw puzzle, with the pieces deliberately mixed up, so that they viewer has some clues as to what they were seeing, but could interpret different sections of an artwork differently.


Both Braque and Picasso helped the viewer with their interpretation by generally using traditional and neutral subjects (often musical instruments, bottles, pitchers, glasses, newspapers, playing cards, and the human face and figure), but often a line or shape could be seen to perhaps be several different things, or facing in different directions.


Because the artists deliberately wanted to avoid the expressive nature of colour, they used a monochromatic palette (ochre, beige, black, and white). Often their work was so similar when they painted side by side it was difficult to tell who was the artist.


Braque and Picasso painted together until the first World War commenced in 1914. During the war Braque suffered a serious head wound and after he returned home his work became less angular and featured subtle muted colours and a more realistic interpretation of nature. At the same time, Picasso was also moving in new directions.


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The Heidi Horten Collection at the Leopold Museum

Another in my 2018 European holiday series.

It’s wonderful to discover artworks that you haven’t seen before and the Heidi Horten Collection at the Leopold Museum provided me with another opportunity to do just that.

The Heidi Horton Collection contains more than 170 works spanning a hundred years from Expressionisn through to pop art.

Heidi Goesse-Horton has been expanding her collection since the 1990s and has built one of the most impressive private collections in Europe. It contains over 500 paintings, graphic works and sculptures.

You can see more more about the Collection at and

Luckily the exhibition had been extended from the end of July to early September or I would have missed it. 

The standout pieces for me included the Rothko I saw as I entered the exhibition,

A beautiful Joseph Albers demonstrating his use of colours and design (the photo doesn’t do it justice),

a simple Matisse drawing,

This Kees von Dongen, with its controlled design and muted palette,

and another Expressionist work, this time by August Macke.

And finally a work by Michelangelo Pisteletto, simply because of its creativity (a mirror with two figures appearing to look over a railing). 

Surprised at the Leopold

Another in my 2018 European holiday series.

Today I am in Vienna for my first ever visit. One of my priorities has been to visit the Leopold Museum to see an exhibition of a well known artist – and I am surprised by his beautiful early works which I hadn’t seen before.

I wonder if you know who the artist is from looking at these pics? 

The artist is Gustav Klimt and I think that these beautiful examples demonstrate the depth and breadth of his abilities. 

After studying at the Vienna School of Decorative Arts, Klimt opened an independent studio in 1883 specialising in mural paintings.

His early work had a classical style that was typical of late 19th-century academic painting.

In 1897 Klimt’s mature style emerged, and he founded the Vienna Sezession, a group of painters who revolted against academic art in favour of a highly decorative style similar to Art Nouveau.

Klimt’s most successful works include The Kiss (1908–09) and a series of portraits of fashionable Viennese matrons, such as Fritza Riedler (1906) and Adele Bloch-Bauer I (1907). In these works he treats the human figure without shadow and heightens the lush sensuality of skin by surrounding it with areas of flat, highly ornamental, brilliantly composed areas of decoration. Source:

As stated in the Britannia bio above, it appeared that his style began to change from the style shown above to his more recognised style from the late 1890s. The first one below was completed in 1907.

This exhibition was a wonderful surprise, and the surprises kept coming as I discovered the Heidi Horton collection, also at the Leopold Museum – see pics in next blog.

Postscript: here are some photos of the paintings that Klimt was commissioned to do for the Kunsthishistorisches Museum in Vienna which I discovered during my visit.





Carrieres De Lumieres

The next in my 2018 Holiday series.


I thought our afternoon tour was just to the small town of St Remy in Provence, passing by the local countryside and quarry.

I didn’t realise the treasures to be found in the quarry – a fantastic and immersive light and sound show (can you imagine the acoustics), this time of Pablo Picasso.

The name of the space is Carrieres De Lumieres and I urge you not to miss it if you are in Provence.


I’ll let the pictures speak for themselves and encourage you to look at the website.






















Red, White and Blue, and Yellow

The next in my 2018 European holiday series – 15 July

Like the French Soccer team, I am on a mission today. I am looking for the Yellow house, at least where it used to stand before it was bombed by the Allies (accidentally) in May 1945. It is the house that Vincent Van Gogh rented and painted in 1888, hoping to start an artist commune in Arles. Paul Gauguin visited for a short time, but this proved to be an unhappy experience for both of them.

VIncent Van Gogh, The Yellow House, 1888VIncent Van Gogh, The Yellow House, 1888VIncent Van Gogh, The Yellow House, 1888
VIncent Van Gogh, The Yellow House, 1888

He rented four rooms at 2 Place Lamartine, on the right wing of the nearest building in the painting. The two ground floor rooms were used for a studio and a kitchen. The upstairs corner room was the guest room for Gauguin, while the one next to it (with one shutter closed) was Van Gogh’s bedroom – the one later painted with the chair and pipe. At a later point, he rented two more rooms upstairs at the back of the house.

On 16 September 1888 Vincent wrote to his sister Wilhelmina describing the house, and his contentment at finding a place where he felt he could think and paint:

“…Also a sketch of a 30 square canvas representing the house and its setting under a sulphur sun under a pure cobalt sky. The theme is a hard one! But that is exactly why I want to conquer it. Because it is fantastic, these yellow houses in the sun and also the incomparable freshness of the blue. All the ground is yellow too. I will soon send you a better drawing of it than this sketch out of my head.

The house on the left is pink with green shutters. It’s the one that is shaded by a tree. This is the restaurant where I go to dine every day. My friend the factor is at the end of the street on the left, between the two bridges of the railroad. The night café that I painted is not in the picture, it is on the left of the restaurant.”

– Letter to Theo (543) dated 28 September 1888

I left the boat and set off for the old section of town – the very helpful Cruise Director had marked the spot that she thought it had been on the map.  However when I found the little square I couldn’t find any plaque or reference to the house, so I asked  a local tour guide who simply laughed and said ‘but it doesn’t exist any more!’ and turned back to her tour participants.

So then with my less than trusty map, I set off to find signs of the house. I firstly came across  a cafe which he painted (where I paid a ridiculous amount for a soft drink).LRG_DSC04573

I then found a small garden where Van Gogh painted  (also now heavily commercialised ) next to the hospital where he had been admitted in Arles.


Then to the local museum which houses several of his works.


Included in the photos below are some close ups of the canvas so you can see how he applied the paint..





After leaving the museum and heading back towards the boat, I found the information centre where another very helpful person produced a new map, and placed a new X – which was about 50 metres from where the boat was moored! I had walked close by when I’d set out on my walk about two hours beforehand.










I also realised that one of his starry night paintings would likely have been done in the vicinity of the boat mooring.



(On route to our adventure of the afternoon – please do check this blog –  we also saw the sunflowers where Vincent would have painted, the hospital at St Remy where he stayed, and the monastery where he painted.)





So, like the French soccer players, mission accomplised, and a great reason to celebrate!


And just to finish, a few pics of the area.




Cezanne and Provence

The next in my 2018 European holiday series 


It may seem small thing, but today included a bucket list event.

On the  bus heading towards Arles where I was to join the cruise we drove past Mount Sainte-Victoire, which Cezanne painted so many times. The bus also stopped  for a rest break where the mountain was still in full sight, so I had the opportunity to take a number of photos, even though it was interesting trying to block out the various signs and structures of the petrol station and I’ve used my iPad to take the pics!

Cezanne is one of my favourite artists because  he was so inspired, and his experiments with shape, form and colour significantly influenced the Modern artists and art styles to follow.  I don’t think that pictures of his work really do him justice, but if you have ever seen his work in the gallery you can see the depth and the relationships between colour and form in a way that will give you many ‘aha’ moments.

In the catalogue for the 1910 London exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists, the art critic and curator Roger Fry wrote that Cézanne ‘showed how it was possible to pass from the complexity of the appearance of things to the geometrical simplicity which design demands’.

So whilst Cézanne focused mainly on the landscape around his home town, he turns this landscape into a study of form and colour.


Whereas the Impressionists painted with thick, short brushstrokes, shimmering colours and no outlines, Cézanne used blocks of strong colour, prominently outlining forms such as the tree trunk and the fields in dark blue.

His interest in form and line is emphasised in the shape of the branches and the way in which they perfectly echo the outline of the mountain behind.

Cézanne’s simplification of the landscape could be interpreted as a return to an era of balanced, harmonious form rather than complex ornamentation, as well as a leap towards Modernism: the structured parallel brushstrokes that fragment the surface of the composition, as well as the bold colours, appealed to younger artists and paved the way towards abstraction. (source: Courtauld  Museum)

Rising to 1011 metres, the massive limestone peak of Mount Sainte-Victoire dominates the countryside around Aix, and the oeuvre of Cézanne.

The artist produced at least thirty canvases and many watercolours, unifying the forms and rhythms of the landscape with short diagonal brushstrokes and patches of colour. In his vast panoramas of the early 1880s he contrasts the mountain and foreground vegetation, exploring ways for Mount Sainte-Victoire to become the compositional focus. In later works, the mountain dominates the entire scene, often merging into the sky. By limiting his palette to greens, blues, grey-violet and cream, Cézanne emphasises the grandeur and gravity of the landscape.

Despite the artist’s constant moves—he only settled permanently in Aix in 1897—and the difficulty of dating many works, Mount Sainte-Victoire imposes a geological consistency and series-like fidelity on Cézanne’s oeuvre. In this painting and others of the first series—Mount Sainte-Victoire and the viaduct of the Arc Valley 1882–85 (p.37) and Mount Sainte-Victoire with large pine c. 1887 being two of the most famous—Cézanne shows details of his sister- and brother-in-law’s property, the walls, fields and neighbouring farmhouses, the Arc River and railway viaduct. He uses the architectural elements to enhance the landscape, as though to ‘contrast the wayward and irregular forms of the natural world with the more orderly geometric shapes of man’s own devising’. By changing his position slightly, Cézanne creates subtle variations in the geometric relationship between the landscape and built environment.

In the early paintings, Cézanne employs trees to frame or interrupt his composition; later, as he ‘subtracts’ these elements, the relationship between mountain and its surrounds is examined in other ways. The wall in the extreme foreground of this painting is a traditional repoussoir device, framing the composition and providing an entrée for the viewer; it forms a parallel with the aqueduct in the valley below, and counterpoint to the pyramid-like mountain. The corner of the wall also announces the point at which the foliage sweeps back, like imaginary theatre curtains, to reveal the grandeur of Mount Sainte-Victoire beyond. Rather than applying the same cross-hatching technique to the whole canvas, as he does in the later series, Cézanne adjusts the direction of his brushstrokes to his forms. The canvas is visible between the spare, quickly worked brushwork. As the artist wrote to his first biographer, Joachim Gasquet:

the blue smell of the pines … must be married to the green smell of the plains which are refreshed every morning, with the smell of stones, the perfume of distant marble from Sainte-Victoire. I have not expressed it. It must be done. And by colours, not literature.

Source : Lucinda Ward  National Gallery of Australia, (NGA)Canberra 2009

And to finish this post, some more pics of our bus trip (still taken on iPad from the window on the bus) and a photo of an amazing sunset, taken on the boat on the first evening – what a great start, and great to meet other passengers including two sisters, also from Australia, in the room next door.


Max Ernst – Cannes


Today it’s Bastille Day,  the 14 of July, and I’m in Cannes. Those few drops of rain were very welcome as it is still very hot and humid. Best to avoid the esplanade and enjoy wandering through the back streets.

It’s fortunate that at least one gallery is open today and I enjoy seeing an exhibition of Max Ernst and his surrealist works.


It’s a lovely little exhibition with works dating from 1929 to around 1972, and I particularly loved his quirky little sculptures, similar to the one below.


Max Ernst was born on April 2, 1891, in Brühl, Germany. He enrolled in the University at Bonn in 1909 to study philosophy, but soon abandoned this pursuit to concentrate on art. At this time he was interested in psychology and the art of the mentally ill. In 1911 Ernst became a friend of August Macke and joined the Rheinische Expressionisten group in Bonn. Ernst showed for the first time in 1912 at the Galerie Feldman in Cologne. At the Sonderbund exhibition of that year in Cologne he saw the work of Paul Cézanne, Edvard Munch, Pablo Picasso, and Vincent van Gogh. In 1913 he met Guillaume Apollinaire and Robert Delaunay and traveled to Paris. Ernst participated that same year in the Erste deutsche Herbstsalon. In 1914 he met Jean Arp, who was to become a lifelong friend.

Despite military service throughout World War I, Ernst was able to continue painting and to exhibit in Berlin at Der Sturm in 1916. He returned to Cologne in 1918. The next year he produced his first collages and founded the short-lived Cologne Dada movement with Johannes Theodor Baargeld; they were joined by Arp and others. In 1921 Ernst exhibited for the first time in Paris, at the Galerie au Sans Pareil. He was involved in Surrealist activities in the early 1920s with Paul Eluard and André Breton. In 1925 Ernst executed his first frottages; a series of frottages was published in his book Histoire naturelle in 1926. He collaborated with Joan Miró on designs for Sergei Diaghilev that same year. The first of his collage-novels, La Femme 100 têtes, was published in 1929. The following year the artist collaborated with Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel on the film L’Age d’or.

His first American show was held at the Julien Levy Gallery, New York, in 1932. In 1936 Ernst was represented in Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1939 he was interned in France as an enemy alien. Two years later Ernst fled to the United States with Peggy Guggenheim, whom he married early in 1942. After their divorce he married Dorothea Tanning and in 1953 resettled in France. Ernst received the Grand Prize for painting at the Venice Biennale in 1954, and in 1975 the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum gave him a major retrospective, which traveled in modified form to the Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, in 1975. He died on April 1, 1976, in Paris. (Source: Guggenheim Museum).

Below are a few examples of the style of work in the gallery.



Of course, I thought I should also include a photo of the Cannes festival theatre as well as a few local pics.


This evening I start my cruise along the Rhône river.

Picasso Museum – Antibes

E6146851-AF11-46D8-8094-6C6048C11D97Over the next  few weeks I’ll be sharing with you some images from the galleries that I visit during my European holiday.  Please forgive the fact that I haven’t attempted to edit most the photos in any way..2510C766-6940-47CB-8E4F-B0094355D706

After leaving a very wintry Sydney with heaters turned up high, I arrived in Nice where it was 30° and so  humid I showered three times on the first day!

One of my favourite places in France is Nice,  and I had a fantastic apartment in place Massena which is so central to both the beach and the old section.

As well as visiting old family friends the highlight of my visit this time was a trip to Antibes, about 15  minutes from Nice, and in particular to the Picasso Museum.

Musee Picasso Antibes
Musee Picasso Antibes

According to Antibes– Juen-les-Pins, Musée Picasso is founded on the ancient acropolis of the Greek city of Antipolis, Roman castrum, which was the residence of the bishops in the Middle Ages (from 442 to 1385).

A castle was built on the site in 1385 by the Monegasque family who gave it its name of the Grimaldi castle. It later became the residence of the governor  and then the town hall from 1792. In 1820 it became a military barracks  before being established as a museum by Professor Romuald Dor de la Souchere in 1923.

Professor of French, Greek and Latin at Lycée Carnot in Cannes, Romuald Dor Souchère began his archaeological research in Antibes in 1923. In 1924, he created the Friends of the Museum of Antibes, in order to found a Historical and Archaeological Museum and to display the history  of the region.

In 1925, the Grimaldi castle was bought by the city of Antibes and became the Grimaldi museum, with Romuald Dor de la Souchère as its first curator.

According to this website, Picasso visited the Museum in September 1945 (just a few months after the end of the Second World War) and stayed until sometime in 1946 when  Dor de la Souchère offered him the use of part of the castle as a studio.


Picasso, enthusiastic, worked at the castle and created many works, drawings and paintings. Following his stay in 1946, Pablo Picasso left 23 paintings and 44 drawings in the city of Antibes.


September 22, 1947 saw the official inauguration of the Picasso room on the first floor, accompanied by a first hanging of the works of Antibes. On September 7, 1948, an exhibition was extended to include 78 ceramics made at the Madoura workshop in Vallauris. On September 13, 1949, on the occasion of the inauguration of the exhibition “French tapestries”, new rooms dedicated to Picasso’s paintings, ceramics and drawings were opened to the public.
And on December 27, 1966, the city of Antibes paid homage to Pablo Picasso and the Grimaldi castle  when it officially became the Picasso museum – the first museum dedicated to the artist. Finally, in 1991, the Jacqueline Picasso authorised extensions to the Picasso collection.
To my absolute delight I turned into a room of ceramics. Some years ago I bought pictures of these ceramics so it was fantastic to see two walls of these great works.




To finish with, just a few more photos of the gallery space and Antibes …
(You might also enjoy this article by the Guardian)

Fauvism – ‘The art of wild beasts’

A major event in twentieth century art was the 1905 Salon d’Autumne  with its scandalous ‘Fauve’ paintings.

The paintings were considered by most to be irredeemably ugly with their bold dashes of colour, which bore little resemblance to the actual colours of their subjects.

One painting in particular, Henri Matisse’s Woman with a Hat, caused the same level of controversy as Edouard Manet’s Olympia had years before.

However, painter Maurice Denis described the exhibition in the following way,

When one enters the gallery devoted to their work, at the sight of these landscapes, these figure studies, these simple designs, all of them violent in colour, one prepares to examine their intentions, to learn their theories; and one feels completely in the realm of abstraction. Of course, as in the most extreme departures of van Gogh, something still remains of the original feeling of nature.

But here one finds, above all in the work of Matisse paintings outside every contingency, painting in itself, the act of pure painting.

All the qualities of the picture other than the contrasts of line and colour, everything which the rational mind of the painter has not controlled, everything which comes from our instinct and from nature, finally all the factors of representation and of feeling are excluded from the work of art.

Here is, in fact, a search for the absolute. Yet, strange contradiction, this absolute is limited by the one thing in the world that is most relative: individual emotion.”

source: Russell T Clement, Les Fauves, A Sourcebook, 1994

However, the scandal caused by the works of the Fauves ( ‘wild beasts’ in French) at the 1905 Salon d’Automne turned into tremendous success,  which consolidated their identity as a group and encouraged them to continue exploring this new way of painting, to suit their individual personalities and styles. Fauvism continued as a recognised style until about 1908.

(The name Fauves was coined by the critic Louis Vauxcelles who, pointing to a quattrocento1-like sculpture in the middle of that same gallery exclaimed: ” Donatello au milieu des fauves!” (Donatello among the wild beasts), and the name fauves stuck.  source: John Rewald, Les Fauves, MoMA.

The group  included;

  • Henri Matisse 1869 – 1954
  • André Derain 1880 – 1954
  • Maurice de Vlaminck 1876 – 1958
  • Jean Puy 1876 – 1960
  • Albert Marquet 1875 – 1947
  • Raoul Dufy 1877 – 1953
  • Émilie Charmy 1878 – 1974
  • Kees van Dongen 1877-1968
  • Georges Roualt 1871 – 1958
  • Georges Braque 1882 – 1963 
  • Charles Camoin 1879 – 1965
  • Othon Friesz 1879 – 1949

The key features of their art during this period were:

  • Bright and bold colours;
  • Non-naturalistic colour used expressively;
  • Flattened planes and perspective;
  • Traditional subjects;
  • Simplified scenes;
  • Colour to express emotion; and
  • Omission of  detail.

Fauvism caused shockwaves because there was often no relationship between the colour used for a subject and its actual colour.  The Fauve painters also broke with older, traditional methods of perception, and details were omitted in favour of simplified scenes, featuring flat areas of pigment.

The Fauves were interested in the scientific colour theories that were being developed during the 1800s – particularly those relating to complementary colours. (Complementary colours are pairs of colours appear opposite each other on scientific models such as the colour wheel, and when used side-by-side in a painting make each other look brighter.)

The Fauves also generally returned to the more traditional subjects preferred by the Impressionists, such as landscapes, cityscapes, and scenes of middle class leisure. However, whilst this subject matter is still obvious in their art, you can see an early shift towards abstraction in some works.

Key Influences

Gustave Moreau, Orpheus, 1865
Gustave Moreau, Orpheus, 1865

The Symbolist painter Gustave Moreau was the movement’s first inspirational teacher; as a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris his students included Henri Matisse and George Roualt, Albert Marquet, Henri Manguin and Charles Camoin.

Moreau was a liberal teacher who didn’t interfere with the individuality of his students, encouraging them to look at nature and paint outdoors, and to visit museums, such as the Louvre, frequently.

Matisse said of him,

He did not set us on the right roads, but off the roads. He disturbed our complacency.” “With him one was able to discover the sort of work most suited to one’s temperament.”

With the death of Moreau, the group moved to a free academy, where they were joined by Jean Puy and André Derain.

In 1896, Matisse, still an unknown art student, visited the Australian Impressionist artist John Peter Russell on the island of Belle Île, off the coast of Brittany. The next year he returned as Russell’s student and abandoned his earth-coloured palette for bright Impressionist colours, later stating, “Russell was my teacher, and Russell explained colour theory to me“. Russell had also been a close friend of Vincent van Gogh and gave Matisse one of his 12 Van Gogh drawings,  something that he had never done before, and would never do again, which “suggests that he found in no one else the depth and strength of Matisse’s response”. Source: Hilary Spurling, The Unknown Matisse, Volume 1, pp352-553

John Peter Russell

Vincent van Gogh

Matisse was also attracted to Pointillist Paul Signac‘s and Georges Seurat‘s  ideas about colour and composition, and in 1904 the he spent time with him and Henri-Edmond Cross in St Tropez where Signac had a studio. Although he briefly experimented with a pointillist style, Matisse and other fauves  were more interested in the expressive potential of colour.

Henri-Edmond Cross, Paul Signac, Henri Matisse

Space was also a defining characteristic of Fauvism, influenced by Post-Impressionists such as Paul Cezanne and Vincent van Gogh. In 1899 Matisse purchased a Cezanne Bathers painting and between 1899 and 1901 his painting style evolved based on the lessons he learnt from both these artists.

Paul Cézanne

Matisse sought to incorporate Cézanne’s  “merit of wanting the tones to be forces in a painting” and instead of trying to show space as three-dimensional, Matisse focused on flattening out the space, working in planes rather than depth and using colour to define space.

Henri Matisse, Open Window, 1905
Henri Matisse, Open Window, 1905

Matisse, in particular, whose early development as an artist is almost synonymous with the development of the Fauvism movement, was largely preoccupied with colour as a means of personal expression – colour in its pure and unmixed state composed in the artist’s mind a form of pure expression. A sky could be orange, a tree crimson red, a face any combination of seemingly clashing colours. However, Matisse was most particular about the colours he used, and how they worked together – based on colour theory. Throughout his career he was highly regarded as a colourist.


Also influenced by van Gogh, whose work he’d seen in 1901, Fauve artist Maurice Vlaminck’s technique included the rough handling of paint, and squeezing paint directly onto the canvas from the tube – demonstrating his more impetuous approach to painting.

Maurice de Vlaminck, The River Seine at Chatou, 1906
Maurice de Vlaminck, The River Seine at Chatou, 1906

Paul Derain met with Maurice Vlaminck in 1901 and painted outdoors with him in the areas around Paris, where he introduced him to Matisse.


Andre Derain and Henri Matisse

Derain later joined Henri Matisse in Collioure in July 1905, and it was there Derain discovered the light of the Mediterranean, which greatly influenced his painting. This was significant learning period for them both – similar to the experience of Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir when the painted together at La Grenouillére in 1869.

During this time both artists overcame the rigid Pointillist style of Signac, which had marked their work throughout the previous year, in favour of greater pictorial freedom.


Matisse and Derain also studied the work of Paul Gauguin, and their works shared the latter’s emphasis on broad areas of colour.

The “primitive” art of Gauguin and his stress on pure and non-naturalistic colour provided impetuous for the Fauvists’ interest in non-Western art and the expressive potential of hues.

At the turn of the Century, the admiration for primitive traditions extended to their aesthetic creations, entirely apart from the context of the creation. Matisse, an inveterate museum browser, had probably encountered African sculptures at the Trocadéro museum with de Vlaminck, before visiting North Africa in 1906.

After returning that summer, Matisse painted two versions of The Young Sailor  in which he replaced the first version’s naturalistically contoured facial features with a more rigidly abstract visage reminiscent of a mask.

The sitter of this picture is an 18 year old fisherman, Germain Augustin Barthélémy Montargès, from the small Mediterranean village of Collioure near the Spanish border. Against the flat, bright pink background, Germain wears typical fisherman’s garb; a navy blue cap, a pullover over a white undershirt and blue-and-pink striped jersey, baggy green pants, green-and-white checked socks, and sturdy, laced-up shoes with rubber soles. His broad face is flat and mask-like, and the contours of his rounded limbs are crisp and defined, creating a sharp contrast to the loose brushstrokes that constitute them.

The Fauves included three artists from Le Havre: George Braque, Raoul Dufy and Othon Friesz.

George Braque, The Great Trees, L Estaque, 1906–07, Museum of Modern Art
George Braque, The Great Trees, L Estaque, 1906–07, Museum of Modern Art

After giving up work as a decorator to pursue painting full-time, Georges Braque  became briefly interested in Fauvism  – experimenting with loose brushwork, and vibrant, eye-catching colours and flattening out of planes. (Together with Pablo Picasso, he was instrumental in leading the cubist style, also strongly influenced by Cezanne, which followed shortly after Fauvism.)

Raoul Dufy, Bathers, 1908
Raoul Dufy, Bathers, 1908

Raoul Dufy was a furniture designer who also became a painter and print maker, and early in his career he was interested in Fauvism, being influenced by Matisse. Like Matisse, he painted a Cezanne inspired painting of bathers. His distinctive style remained light hearted throughout his career.

Othon Friesz, Autumn Work, 1907, State Heritage Museum
Othon Friesz, Autumn Work, 1907,

Together with Braque and Dufy, Othon Friesz studied in Le Havre. First influenced by the Impressionists, then by Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin and Matisse’s high colour techniques,  his work as included at the Salon d’Automne in 1905.  His paintings  were composed of fluid strokes – using colour in the place of form and line – although his colours weren’t as violent or saturated as other fauves.

Emilie Charmy, Still Life, c1904
Emilie Charmy, Still Life, c1904

The most well known female fauvist was Émilie  de Charmy.  She commonly painted more daring subjects such as brothel interiors and prostitutes,  using intense colours, thickly applied paint, seemingly crude brushwork and a tendency towards abstraction. that would persist throughout her career. She began exhibiting with the Fauves at the Salon des Indépendants and Salon d’Autumne.

Marguerite Zorach, Man among the Redwoods, 1912
Marguerite Zorach, Man among the Redwoods, 1912

Another woman associated with Fauvism was American artist, Marguerite Zorach, who exhibited at the 1910 Société des Artistes Indépendants, and the 1911 Salon d’Automne, after meeting with Matisse and others. She had a highly successful career when she returned to the U.S.

Fauvism was short lived, and by the end of the decade, artists in the group had developed their individual styles. For most of the artists, Fauvism was a transitional, learning stage. More Matisse in particular, it was critical in his understanding in the use and power of colour.  Fauvism was significant in developing Modernism by bringing together influences of such artists as Cezanne, Russell, Signac, van Gogh and Gauguin.  The use of intense colour as a vehicle for denoting space, as well as for expression, was an important precursor to Cubism and a move towards abstraction.

1 Quattrocentois the Italian term that means “four hundred” for the years belonging to the fifteenth century. It was one of the most important periods of European art and culture.

This blog is an excerpt from my on-line e-course, Introduction to Modern European Art – you can find access to a free trial on the site. 

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